Chemistry of Life

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Chemistry of Life
2013-09-16 00:15:48

Bio 110
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  1. Energy
    Ability to do work
  2. Potential Energy
    • ~Potential Energy!!
    • ~The stored energy in an object or system because of its position or configuration
    • Can be transferred
    • ~Chemical
    • ~ Stored Mechanical
  3. Kinetic Energy
    • Motion!!
    • ~The energy of a body or a system with respect to the motion of the body or the particles in the system~
    • ~Can be transferred from one moving object to another ->Collisions
  4. Composition of Matter

    • ~Fundamental units of matter; pure substances
    • ~96% if the body is made from 4 elements
    • Carbon (C)
    • Oxygen (O)
    • Hydrogen(H)
    • Nitrogen(N)
  5. Composition of Matter
    Building blocks of elements
  6. Subatomic Particles
    • ~Protons (p+)
    • ~Neutrons (n°)
  7. Subatomic Particles
    Orbiting the nucleus
    • ~Electrons (e-)
    • ↳Shells
  8. Periodic Table
    • ~117 Elements are listed by symbol
    • ~First 94 elements occur in nature
    • ~Groups = Vertical (Stand up as a Group_
    • ~Period = Horizontal
  9. Atomic #
    ~equal to the number of electrons OR protons that the atom contains
  10. Atomic mass number
    • ~Sum of the protons AND neutrons
    • ~atomic mass units
  11. Isotopes
    • *Atoms of an element that differ in the number of their neutrons -> Neutrons are found in the nucleus*
    • ~All elements have isotopes
    • ~Define by their mass number
    • total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus (Carbon 12 = 6 protons and 6 neutrons; Carbon 14 = 6 protons and 8 neutrons)
  12. Radioisotope
    ~when atoms will spontaneously emit subatomic particle or energy (radiation) when their nucleus breaks down
  13. Electrons and Bonding
    • ~Electrons occupy energy levels called electron shells
    • ~Electrons closest to the nucleus are most strongly attracted (first orbital)
    • ~Each shell has distinct properties
    •     -The number of electrons has an upper limit
    •     -Shells closest to the nucleus fill first
  14. Stable (Inert) Elements
    • ~Atoms are stable (inert) when the outermost shell is complete
    • ~How to fill the atoms shells.....
    • Shell 1 can hold a maximum of 2 electrons
    • Shell 2 can hold a maximum of 8 electrons
    • Shell 3 can hold a maximum of 8 electrons
  15. Stable Elements
    Atoms will gain, loose, or share electrons to complete their outermost orbitals and reach a stable state
  16. Rule of Eights
    • ~atoms are considered stable when their outermost orbital has 8 electrons
    • ~The exception to this "rule of eights" is Shell 1 which can only hold 2 electrons
  17. Electrons and Bonding
    • ~bonding involves interactions between electrons in the outer most valence shell
    • ~Full valence shells do not form bonds
    • ~Valence electrons are the outermost electrons of an atom
  18. Reactive Elements
    • ~Valence shells are not full and are unstable
    • ~They tend to gain, lose, or share electrons
    •     - allow for bond formation which produces a stable valence
  19. Gain Electron
    • ~Become more negative!!
    • If around a negative person you will gain negativity!!
  20. Loose Electron
    Loose Negativity!!
  21. Electronegativity
    • *The ability to pull electrons away from other atoms
    •    -Not the same as charge
    • ~Depends on size and number of vacancies it has in outermost shell
  22. Molecules and Compounds
    ~two or more atoms of the same elements combined chemically
  23. Molecules and Compounds
    ~two or more atoms of different elements combined chemically
  24. Molecules and Compounds
    • ~intermingling of two or more substances
    •    -liquid mixture is called a solution
  25. Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions
    • ~coupled (occur together, simultaneously) chemical reactions that occur when a transfer of electrons, hydrogen, or oxygen takes place
    •      -trying to make stable
  26. Oxidation
    ~Loss of electrons, hydrogen, or both, or the gain of oxygen-> oxygen = chemically negative
  27. Reduction
    • ~Gain of electrons, hydrogen, or both or the loss of oxygen
    • ~The accumulation and transfer of electrons is essential to the synthesis of new energy-storage molecules such as ATP
    • ~Electron accumulation builds reducing power while electron transfer releases energy in small, manageable amounts
  28. Ions
    • ~Result from the loss or gain of electrons
    • ~Charged particles
  29. Ions ->Anions
    • Negative due to gain of electrons
    •     -ex. Chloride
  30. Ions->Cations
    • Positive due to loss of electrons
    • - Cats are "Pawsative"
    • ex. Sodium
  31. Ionic Chemical Bonds
    • A strong mutual attraction of oppositely charged ions
    • ~Atoms become stable through the transfer of electrons
    • ~Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
  32. Covalent Chemical Bonds
    • ~Covalent bonds share
    • ~Atoms become stable through shared electrons -> Shared in pairs
    • ~Single covalent bonds share one pair of electrons
    • ~Double covalent bonds share two pairs of electrons
  33. Non-polar Covalent Bonds
    • *Equal!
    • ~Electrons are equally shared between the atoms of the molecule
    • ~Electrically neutral as a molecule
  34. Polar Covalent Bonds
    • *Not Equal!
    • ~Electrons are not shared equally between the atoms of the molecule
    • ~Have a positive and negative side or "pole"
  35. Hydrogen Chemical Bonds
    • ~Weak chemical bonds
    • ~Hydrogen is attracted to the negative portion of polar molecules
    • ~Provides attraction between molecules
  36. Properties of Water
    • ~High heat capacity
    • ~High heat of vaporization
    • ~Universal solvent
    • ~Molecules are cohesive and adhesive
    • ~High surface tension
    • ~Frozen water is less dense that liquid water
  37. Importance of Water
    • Water = universal solvent
    • ~Water is able to dissolve a large variety of substances, due to the polarity
    • ~Most of the molecules in cells are also polar and so can form hydrogen bonds, or ionic bonds with water
  38. Hydrophilic
    • ~Solutes that have an affinity (attraction) for water and dissolve in it easily
    •    ~Generally polar molecules or ions
    •    ~many small molecules -> sugars, organic acids, some amino acids
  39. Hydrophobic
    • Molecules not easily soluble in water ->stay away from water
    •    -Lipids, protein and generally nonpolar molecules
  40. Water Molecules are Polar
    • ~Unequal distribution of electrons gives water its polarity
    • ~The water molecule is bent rather that linear
    • ~The oxygen atom at one end of the molecule is highly electronegative drawing the electrons toward it
    • ~This results in a partial negative charge at this end of the molecule, and a partial positive charge around the hydrogen atoms
  41. Water Molecules are Cohesive
    • Because of their polarity
    •    -water molecules are attracted to each other
    •    -orient so the electronegative oxygen of one molecule is associated with the electropositive hydrogens of nearby molecules
    •    - Hydrogen bonds are about 1/10 as strong as covalent bonds
  42. Surface tension of water
    ~The result of the collective strength of vast numbers of hydrogen bonds
  43. Hydrogen bonds and cohesiveness
    Water is characterized by an extensive network of hydrogen bonded molecules which make it cohesive
  44. Cohesion
    Resist separating from each other

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