Biological Anthro Lab Quiz

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Biological Anthro Lab Quiz
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2013-09-15 00:17:54
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Bio Anthro Lab Quiz
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Ch. 1-3
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  1. The Pectoral Girdle
    Scapula
    • 3 edges:
    • vertebral (medial) border,
    • axillary (lateral) border
    • superior border

    • Prominent feature
    • Spine of scapula (along dorsal surface)
    • Glenoid fossa (shallow socket that attaches to the humerus to create shoulder joint)


    • Major projections
    • Acromial process (end of spine of scapula, where lateral end of clavicle attaches)
    • coracoid process (attachment point for the upper arm muscles)
  2. The Pectoral Girdle
    Clavicle
    two ends that functions to hold the upper limb away from the chest providing maximum movement and stability.

    • Sternal (medial) end
    • attaches to sternum
    • rounded/oval in cross-section


    • Acromial (lateral) end
    • attaches to scapula
    • flattened in cross-section

    • Important landmark
    • Concoid tubercle - point where the ligament attaches to the Coracoid process of the scapula
  3. The Upper Limb
    Humerus
    Proximal end - rounded head (fits into glenoid fossa of the scapula & connects the acromial end of the clavicle by ligaments and muscles.

    Head separated from the shaft by the anatomical neck & further constricted by the surgical neck.

    • Prominences
    • Greater & lesser tuberocity separated by intertubercular groove

    Muscles of the rotaor cuff attach on these tubercles.

    Deltoid tuberosity - deltoid muscles attaches

    • Distal end - two projections:
    • Trochlea (resembles spool of thread)
    • articulates w/ Ulna
    •         3 depressions lie above Trochlea: coronoid fossa, radial fossa, olecranon fossa.

    • Medial epicondyle distal medial end
    • Lateral epicondyle distal lateral end

    epicondyles are attachment sites for forearm muscles.


    • Capitulum (small round projection)
    • articulates w/Radius
  4. The Upper Limb
    Radius & Ulna
    • Radius
    • Proximal end landmarks
    • Head - attaches to capitulum of humerus
    • Constricted neck
    • Radial tuberosity -attachment site for the bicep muscles

    • Distal end landmarks
    • Styloid process (pointed)
    • Ulnar notch (concave)

    • Ulna
    • Proximal end
    • Olecranon process - projection that fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus
    • Semilunar notch - encloses the trochlea of the humerus

    Radial notch - lower lateral side of the semilunar notch articulates w/ the head of the radius

    • Distal end
    • Styloid process (pointed small)
  5. The Upper Limb
    Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges
    • Carpals - 8 small bones of the wrist bound tightly by ligaments.
    • Proximal row - scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform
    • Distal row - trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate 

    • Metacarpals
    • bones in the palm

    • Phalanges
    • each hand contains 14 phalanges
    • each finger has 3 phalanges arranged into proximal, middle and distal rows
    • The thumb only has 2 phalanges, proximal and distal
  6. The Pelvic Girdle
    Coxal bones (singular: Os Coxae)
    3 bones fuse during adolescence

    • Ilium
    • auricular surface - ear shaped region articulates w/ the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint.
    • Greater sciatic notich - sciatic nerve passes through this region
    • Iliac crest - runs along superior rim of the ilium and terminates at each end at a bony prominence

    • Ischium
    • Ischial tuberosity - attachment site of hamstring muscles
    • Obturator foramen - large opening that blood vessels and nerves pass through on their way from the pelvic cavity to the lower limb.

    • Pubis
    • Pubic symphysis - where the left and right pubic bones meet.
    • Cartilaginous joint surface area changes form with age. Separates during childbirth


    All three bones form the Acetabulum - deep socket where the head of the femur articulates to form the hip joint
  7. The Lower Limb
    Femur
    • Femur
    • Proximal end
    • ball-shaped head - articulates at the acetabulum fo the pelvis (hip joint)
    • Fovea capitis - small pit short strong ligament of the head of the femur runs into the acetabulum and keeps it in place

    • Greater trochanter
    • Lesser trochanter

    Gluteal tuberosity - attachment for the gluteal muscles

    Linea aspera - raised line or ridge that anchors the hamstring muscles

    • Distal end
    • medial and lateral condyles (large projections with a smooth inferior surface that articulates with tibia.)

    Condyles are separated posteriorly by the large intercondylar notch and anteriorly by the smooth Patellar surface
  8. The Lower Limb
    Patella
    Lies just in front of the distal femur at the patella surface.

    • The inferior edge is shaped into the apex.
    • The posterior surface is composed of two articular facets, medial and lateral.
  9. The Lower Limb
    Tibia & Fibula
    • Tiba
    • Larger bone of the lower leg.

    • Proximal end
    • Tibial tuberosity - attachment site for the quadriceps muscles of the anterior thigh via the patellar ligament
    • Anterior crest - (shin)

    • Distal end
    • Medial malleolus - comprises one of the ankle bones.

    • Fibula
    • lateral lower leg bone not involved in the knee joint

    • Proximal end
    • head

    • Distal end
    • Lateral malleolus
  10. The Lower Limb
    Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges
    • 7 tarsals, 5 metatarsals, 14 phalanges
    • big toe - Hallux

    Weight of body is carried through the largest tarsal, talus - articulates with tibia to form the ankle joint and the calcaneus

    • Arches
    • Longitudinal arch - runs from heel to toes
    • Transverse arch - runs from medial to lateral
  11. The Skull
    The cranium
    • The cranial vault forms two major areas:
    • Calvaria - superior, lateral, and posterior walls
    • Cranial base - bottom of skill

    Bones of the brain case (midline)

    • Frontal
    • Occipital
    • Sphenoid
    • Ethmoid
    • Temporals (paired bones)
    • Parietals (paired bones)
    • form the top and sides of cranium

    • Face (14 bones)
    • Paired
    • Maxilla
    • Platine
    • Zygomatic
    • Lacrimal
    • Nasal Concha
    • Inferior Nasal
    • Unpaired
    • Mandible
    • Vomer
  12. The Skull
    Frontal & Occipital bones

    • Frontal
    • Landmarks
    • Supraorbital forman
    • Galbella
    • Supraorbital margin
    • Supraorbital arch (browridge)


    • Occipital
    • forms posterior walls and the base of skull

    • Landmarks:
    • Foramen magnum (large base opening)

    Occipital condyles (small facets on either side of foramen magnum articulates w/ first cervical vertebra)

    Nuchal lines - external surface of occipital bone. Area of muscle attachment for muscles of the neck and shoulders
  13. The Skull
    Temporal Bone        
    • Important features
    • Squamous portion - smooth flattened area just inferior to the parietal bone

    Zygomatic arch - makes up the cheek bone

    Mandibular fossa - small depression point of articulation of the mandible to the cranium >Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) [Only synovial joint in the cranium]

    External auditory meatus - ear canal inside 3 tiny ossicles: the malleus, incus, and stapes

    Mastoid process - point of muscle attachment for the neck muscles.

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