Pathology MBLEX

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Pathology MBLEX
2013-09-15 02:25:23

Pathology MBLEX
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  1. Repair of tissue damage follows one of two pathways
    1. Regeneration
    2. Healing
    • Regeneration: restoration of lost or damaged tissues
    • Healing: (separate from regeneration): occurs when the basic tissue structure has been altered. It involves both regeneration and the formation of fibrous or scar tissue.  / Replacement of destroyed tissue with scar tissue. Restores tensile strength, but not function.
  2. Regeneration occurs depending on the following
    • Is there enough viable (healthy, living) CT surrounding the injury
    • Is there connective framework to support the regrowth of tissue.
    • Can the cells involved regenerate (grow & divide)
    • Are there enough of the surviving, viable cells
  3. Proliferative Cell Types (continuously dividing)
    *determines in large part whether a wound regenerates or forms a scar
    • Continuously dividing (labile) cells: cells divide actively throughout life
    • Quiescent (stable) cells: cells only undergo division when activated. Capable of regeneration after injury.
    • Nondividing (permanent) cells: (cardiac/neurons): cells are incapable of regeneration and are replaced by scar tissue. Cells that produce most of the ECM.
  4. Fibrosis (scar) formation
    Fibrous or scar tissue is synonymous with collagen
    Scar formation occurs when...
    • regeneration fails to occur in an acute inflammatory process
    • ongoing tissue necrosis in chronic inflammation
    • cell necrosis cannot be repaired by regeneration
  5. Key Processes (6)
    • Removal of debris: acute inflammation
    • Angiogenesis: formation of new blood vessels
    • Scar remodeling: *this step never ends
    • Maturation of a scar: is an avascular, minimally cellular mass of collagen and is white on gross examination
    • Contraction & Strengthening: decreases size of the scar and enables the remaining cells of the organ to function with maximal effectiveness
  6. Cutaneous Wound Healing
    First Intention (primary)
    Secondary Intention
    • First Intention: internal or deep scarring
    • Secondary Intention: wounds that fail to heal by first intention; more apparent, superficial scar, large wound
  7. Tensile Strength of Scar
    First week
    Fourth week
    Several Months
    • First week: 10%
    • Fourth week: 50%
    • Several months: 80%
  8. Excess Scar Formation
    • Keloid: raised, leveled scar tissue; most common in those with African and Asian descent
    • Contractures: abnormal shortening of scar tissue due to excessive wound contraction
  9. What is the relationship between inflammation & wound repair?
    Inflammation provides the nutrients and cells needed for wound repair to occur
  10. Where can pathology occur on a microscopic level & on a larger scale
    • on a microscopic level arising from mutated DNA, damaged cell membranes, or bacterial invasions
    • on a larger scale, a sprained ankle, a laceration, or a tumor
  11. A structural or functional change within the body judged to be abnormal, a failure of adaptation / any deviation from the normal structure or function of the human body
  12. The study of basic processes @ cellular level
    General Pathology
  13. The study of disease themselves
    Systematic Pathology
  14. Two approaches to pathology
    Problem-Oriented & Disease Oriented
    • Problem-Oriented: First step in identification of disease / cause & nature
    • Disease-Oriented: knowledge of diseases and their clinical manifestations (how the disease shows up) required
  15. Any disease producing microorganism
  16. Develops or originates within the body
    • Endogenous pathogen
    • ex. E.coli (escherichia coli)
  17. Develops or originates outside the body
    Exogenous pathogen
  18. Unknown or spontaneous cause / we don't know what is causing it yet
    • Idiopathic
    • ex. Alzheimer's, epilepsy, arthritis
  19. Nosocomial infections - diseases acquired simple by being hospitalized
    • ex. staph
    • anti-microbial agents give way to resistant strains
    • immune systems are weak
    • medical procedures bypass body natural defenses
    • medical staff provide way for pathogens to spread
  20. What is wrong with this statement: "Massage Therapy is Contraindicated"
    It's too general and depends on... the client, the modality, and the pathology
  21. The study of the essential nature of disease
  22. The study of the frequency (how often) and distribution (how widespread/where) of disease
  23. The study of the cause of disease
  24. The development of the disease
  25. The physical changes accompanying or induced by the disease in cells and organs / body changes with disease ex. scoliosis
    Pathology or structural alterations
  26. The presentation of disease / signs & symptoms
    clinical manifestations
  27. The act of naming a disease in an individual
  28. A disease concurrent (happening at the same time) with another disease
  29. any lesion following or caused by a disease
  30. The impact of the disease on the individual (how does it limit me); ex. bedrest, crutches
    Functional significance
  31. The expected or probable outcome of a disease
  32. management and care of the individual in order to fight off the disease / options to reduce or stop disease
  33. rapid onset, short and relatively severe duration, often followed by rapid resolution
  34. persisting over a long period of time, may follow an acute initial episode or have more insidious (gradual or more subtle) onset
  35. situated entirely within
  36. coming from or originating outside
  37. to distinguish on the basis of differences; develop specialized form, character, or function from the original
    ex. stem cell cultivation
  38. What is considered the first irreversible step towards cancer
  39. Edema is an imbalance between
    Hydrostaic pressure & Oncontic pressure
  40. A blood clot in a damaged vessel
  41. the growth of new vessels
  42. The first line of defense against a wide range of threatening factors
    nonspecific resistance
  43. A gene that acts to convert normal cells to cancer cells is call a(n)
  44. Any substance introduced into the body that triggers an immune response is termed
  45. In which time of immunity do T cells kill infectious agents directly
    cellular immunity
  46. What infectious agents multiply by binary fission
  47. The ability of the infectious agent to establish itself in a host and cause disease is termed
  48. drugs that enhance a specific cell function are called
  49. Drugs that interfere with cell function
  50. Drugs that makes cell function work better
  51. Common bacterial infection of the epidermis
  52. A contagious disease caused by mites
  53. The most important carcinogenic agent in most cutaneous cancer
    Ultraviolet light
  54. A rapidly spreading acute inflammation of subcutaneous tissue
  55. A disease caused by the variola virus
    small pox
  56. a slow, chronic inflammatory degeneration of articular cartilage
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  57. Low back pain triggered by an aneurysm
  58. the pathology where the bones of the body have a reduction in bone mass while keeping the normal ratio of mineral to matrix
  59. An acquired autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal fatigability of skeletal muscle
    myasthenia gravis
  60. A type of osteoarthritis that affects the patellar cartillage in young people
  61. a pathology of bone formation characterized by a thickening and disorganization of bone architecture
    Paget's disease
  62. A fracture that is the result of a disease process that weakens the bone
  63. A defective closure of the neural tube is called
    Spina Bifida
  64. Two hallmark characteristics of increased intracranial pressure
    • headace
    • vomitting
  65. A motor disorder acquired in utero, during the birth process, or soon after birth
    Cerebral palsy
  66. A disorder characterized by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain
  67. An accumulation of excess CSF in the ventricular system of the brain
  68. A traumatic brain injury with a disruption of the bridging veins between the cortex and the dural venous sinuses, most likely when cerebral atrophy is present
    subdural hematoma
  69. An interruption in the delivery of oxygen to the brain
    cerebrovascular accident
  70. Arising outside the brain substance and attaching to the dura, it is a benign, encapsulated neoplasm
  71. A transient loss of cerebral function that immediately follows a head injury
  72. Increased secretion of thyroid hormones in adults
  73. Excess secretion of adrenocotical hormones
    Cushing's syndrome
  74. Decreased secretion of thyroid hormone in children
    Addison's disease
  75. A condition of blood characterized by an abnormally low number of white blood cells
  76. A disease resulting from the hearts inability to eject an adequate amount of blood
    Congestive heart failure
  77. Hypertension is most often the result of an imbalance between
    • cardiac input
    • total peripheral resistance
  78. A collapsed lung or bronchial tube
  79. A chronic productive cough wit no discernible cause for >3 months for 2 consecutive years
    chronic bronchitis
  80. Presence of air in the pleural cavity
  81. An infection of the larynx
  82. Episodic reversible bronchospasm accompanied by bronchial inflammation
  83. Enlargement of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles with destruction of lung parenchyma
  84. The absence of peristalsis with in the esophagus
  85. Telescoping of the bowel itself
  86. The absence of a lumen in a section of the gut tube
  87. A segment of the bowel that twists on its mesentery
  88. An incomplete stricture that narrows but does not occlude the lumen
  89. Most common cause of pyelonephritis and urinary tract infections
    E. coli
  90. A common cervical lesion caused by the human papilloma virus
    condyloma acuminatum