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scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.

correlation/causation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. for example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as "what an intelligence test measures"

independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

confounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

types of studies
 case studies (observing one person indepth)
 naturalistic observation (gathering data but not intervening)
 surveys/interviews (having other people report their attitudes & behavior)

random sampling
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

the scientific method
a selfcorrecting process for evaluating ideas with observation and analysis

measures of central tendency
 mode (the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution)
 median (the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half below it)
 mean (the arithmetic average of distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores)

research methods
 descriptive (observing people)
 correlation (measure of how closely two factors vary together)
 experimentation (manipulating one factor in a situation to determine it's effect)

experimentation
manipulating one factor in a situation to determine it's effect

standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

