Gambling - Contributing Factors

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Gambling - Contributing Factors
2013-09-16 04:26:31
Biopsychoscial model

Biopsychosocial model
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  1. Biological - Dopamine reward system
    • Refers to a neural pathway in the brain that when stimulated, releases the neurotransmitter dopamine providing feelings of enjoyment and pleasure, which can reinforce and motivate a person to perform certain activities
    • The unpredictability of gambling increases the release of dopamine
  2. Biological - Dopamine deficiency syndrome
    • Reward deficiency syndrome: An under active dopamine reward system. They do not experience pleasure and enjoyment from everyday activities. Seek out an extraordinary amount of excitement to feel the way others do normally. 
    • Gambling provides this making them more likely to repeat it to receive the same feeling
  3. Biological - Genetics
    Evidence of a hereditary link to problem gambling and addictive tendencies
  4. Psychological - Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Gambling has a random variable ratio of reinforcement, which, coupled with gambling's mutually exclusive nature and an individual's ignorance thereof, promotes a steady response rate over a longer period of time and is very resistant to extinction
    • Winning (reinforcement) is especially unpredictable
  5. Psychological - Social Learning Theory
    • Describes the way in which people acquire certain behaviours by observing and learning from and their role models through vicarious reinforcement
    • If behaviour is reinforced an individual will imitate it
  6. Psychological - Psychodynamic Theory
    • Based on Freud's theories; gambling behaviour may be influenced by unconscious underlying reasons from the gambler's childhood/past
    • Emotions connected to past events may contribute to gambling behaviours
  7. Social - Social Permission
    Positive or accepting attitudes among community

    Social permission of gambling opportunities (horse races)

    Ease of access to gambling venues

    Promotion of gambling

    Boredom, unemployment, relationship issues