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What are the properties of life common to all organisms?
What is the life's hierarchy of organization?Give exsamples of each level:
- Answer: It is the level at wich the prperties of life emerge the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities.
- Examples: Biosphere,ecosystem,
What are the three domains of life and three major kingdoms within the domain Eukarya
- The kingdoms
What mechanism did darwin propose for evolution?
What is the three word phrase that summarize this mechanism?
- Natural Selection
- unequal reproductive sucess
What are discovery science and Hypothesis base science?
- 1.Discovery Science is to describe life at its many levels from ecosystem and discovery of things
- 2.Hypothisis Science-an explanation of trial (a prerdiction) ( a tentative answer to a question)
The steps of scentific method?
Define elements and compounds?
- elements- is a substance that can not be broken into other substance by chemical reactions.
- Compounds-Combine formsubstance that contain two or more elements ina fixed ratio.
What are the four most common elements found in living organisims?
What are some of the trace elements?
What are some diseases caused by lack of trace elements?
Define the atomic number, mass number, and isotope?
- 1. Atomic Number- then number of protons in a atom determins which elemnts it is
- 2.Mass number-measure of the amount of material in an object.
- 3.Isotope-Same amount of protons and electrons but different amount of neutrons.
What are ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds?
- 1.Ionic bonds- the attraction between oppositely charged Ions.
- 2.Covalent bond- Forms when 2 atoms share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons
- 3.Hydrogen bonds-A molucule of water H2O consist of 2 hyrogyn atoms jaoined to one oxygen atom by single covalent bonds
What are chemical reactions? How do you balance the two sides of a chemical reaction?
Such changes in the chemical composition of matter is a chemical reaction.
To balance both sides must be equal to each other. example: 2 molecules of hydrogyn gas react with one molecule of oxygen gas to form to molecules of water.
Decribe four unique properties of water that make it essentialfor life?
The Cohesive nature of water, the ability of water to moderate tempature, the biological significance ofice floating and the versatility of water as a solvant.
What is pH? How is each pH unit related to the hydrogen ion concentration?
A balance of two highly reactive ions is critical for the proper functioning of chemical processes within organisims.
a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration ina solution. the scale ranges from 0 to 14. Each pH unit represents a tenfold changein the concentrate of H.
Define hydrocarbons and functional groups:
Give two examples of functional groups:
- hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogyn atoms, in terms of chemical composition the simplest organic compounds.
- Functional group- Organic compound the groups of atoms directly involved in chemical reactions.
2 examples of functional groups are hydroxyl group and carboxyl group.
What are dehydration and hydolysis reaction?How are they related?
- Dehydration reaction- a chemical reaction that removes a water molecule.
- Hydrolysis reaction-Chemical process in which a molucule of water is added to a substance.
They are related-one is loosig water and one is that your added water to a substance. They both are type of water molecule.
Name four major categories of biological molecules:
- 4.nucleic acid
What are Monosaccharides, Carbohydrates,Disacchartes,polysaccharides
give exmaples of each
Monosaccharides- one sugar molucule they can not be broken down into smaller sugars examples: glucose,found in sport drinks.
Ploysaccharides-long chain of sugar starch. example grains,potatoes.
Carboydrates- Small sugar molecules stung together.Examples Spaghetti and bread.
Disaccharides- double the sugar. example; Maltose,naturally found in germinating seeds, found in milkshakes, beer.
What are fats and steriods? What are their functions?
- fats consist of a glycerol molecule joined with three fatty acid molecules via dehydration reaction.
- steroids are very diffrent from fats in structure and function. All steriods have a carbon skeloton with four fused rings.
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain. A fatty acid chain is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond.
Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbonatoms of the fatty acid chain.
What are the primary,secondary,tertiary and quaternary structures of protein?
Primary-a protein primary structure is the unique sequence of amino acids in its polypeptide.
Secondary-certain stretches of the polypeptide form local patterns called secondary structure.
Tertiary-the overall three dimensional shape of the polypeptide is called tertiary structure.
Quaternary structure- Proteins with two or more polypeptide chains have a quaternary structure.
What are Nucleotides,DNA, and RNA? How is RNA different from DNA?
Nucleotides-are macromolecules that store information and provide the instruction for building proteins.
DNA-Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses
RNA-Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses
What are Light,scanning electron, and transmission Electron Microscopes? What are their resolving powers and what are they used for?
light microscope-(LM) visible light is projected through the specimen, such as a single celled protist.
scanning electron-(SEM) used to study the detailed architecture of the cell surface.
Transmission electron microscope- (TEM) to study the internal structure of a cell.
Resolving power- the ability of an optical instrument to show two objects as separate.
Study the important features of Prokaryotic,animal and plant cells.
Plant cell structures- Chloroplast,central vacuole,cell wall
Animal Cell structure- centrioles,lysosomes
What is the structure and function of the nucleus and the role of ribosomes in a cell?
The nucleus and ribosomes genetic control of the cell. The function of ribosomes is the protein synthesis.
The ribosomes move along the MRAN translating the genetic message into a protein w/ a specific amino acid.
What are smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula? What are their functions?
- Main manufacturing facilities within a cell. It produces an enormous variety of molecules.connected to the nuclear envelope.
- smooth ER refers to the fact that this organelle lacks the ribosomes that populate the surface of rough ER. The rough ER refers to ribosomes that stud the outside of its membrane. One functions of rough ER is to make more membrane.
What roles do golgi apparatus,lysosomes, and vacuoles play in the eukaryotic cell?
- Golgi-an organelle named for its discoverer, receives,refines,stores and distributes chemical products of the cell.
- Lysosomes-is a membrane enclosed sac of the digestive enzymes found in animal cells. Lysosomes are absent from most plants.
- Vacuoles-are large sacs of membrane taht bud from the ER,golgi apparatus or plasma membrane.
What are two energy converting organelles? How are they different?
Chloroplast and Mitochondria
Chloroplast-are unique to the photosynthetic cells of the plant and algae are the organelles that perform photosynthesis.
Mitochondria-are the organelles of cellular respiration in nearly all cells,harvesting energy from sugars and other foods molecules and using it to produce another form of chemical energy called ATP.
What is the role of cytoskeleton in a eukayotic cell?
A network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplsm the cytoskeleton serves as both skeleton and muscles for the cell,functioning in support and movement.
What are cilia and flagella and what is their function?
- They are both motile appendages extensions from a cell that aid in movement
- Flagella- proped cells through their undulating wiplike motion
Cilia are generally shorter and more numerous than flagella and promote movement.
Define kinetic and potential energy and the principals of conservation of energy.
- Kinetic energy- is off motion
- potential energy- energy that an object has because of it location structure.
- Principal of conservation of energy-its not possible to destroy or create energy.
What is chemical energy and how is it related to the calories we consume and burn?
Molecules of foods,gasoline, and other fuels have a special form of potential energy. you convert 34% of your food energy to useful work.
How does ATP help the cell perform chemical,mechanical and transport work?
ATP energizes other molecules in cells by transferring phosphate groups to those molecules. Transfer phosphate groups to motor proteins. the proteins then change shape causing the muscle cells to contact and perform mechanical work. transport of ions and other dissolved substance across the membrane of the nerves cell.
What are enzymes? How do they catalyze reaction and how do inhibitors block their action?
Proteins that speed up chemical reactions. all living cells contain thousands of different enzymes each promoting different chemical reaction.
What is the cell membrane composed of? What are the main functions of proteins in the cell membrane?
is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment.The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells.
Define diffusion,passive transport,facilitated diffusion,and active transport.
Diffusion-The movement of molecules spreading out evenly into available space
Passive transport-the cell does not expand any energy for it to happen.
facilitated diffusion- Assisted Substance that do not cross membranes spontaneously or do cross but slowly can be transported.
Define osmosis: How do animal and plant cells behave in isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic solutions?
Osmosis-The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membranes.
An animal cell shrivels when it is Hypotonic compared w its enviorment. The cells of a welted plant one isotonic compared with their enviroment.
How are very large molecules transported into and out of cells?
Active transport requires that a cell expand to move molecules across a membrane.