VMED5126 Lec2 Connective Tissue

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bekahann2017
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VMED5126 Lec2 Connective Tissue
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2013-09-15 22:12:58
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VMED5126 Lec2 Connective Tissue
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VMED5126 Lec2 Connective Tissue
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  1. Most connective tissues originate from ___________, the middle germ layer of the embryonic tissue.
    mesoderm
  2. From the mesoderm, an embryonic connective tissue called ______________ develops.
    mesenchyme
  3. Mesenchyme condenses to form what?
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • ligaments
    • fat
    • blood cells
    • blood vessels
    • loose connective tissue
  4. Connective tissue is composed of _________ and extracellular matrix consisting of _________________ and ___________.
    • cells
    • ground substance (and tissue fluid)
    • fibers
  5. Describe ground substance.
    • amorphous (shapeless)
    • colorless
    • material between cells and fibers
  6. Connective tissue is separated from _____________ tissue by _______________.
    • epithelial
    • basal lamina
  7. What are the functions of connective tissue?
    • support
    • transportation
    • energy source
    • storage
    • defense and protection
    • binds and anchors
  8. Connective tissue supports and forms the organ's ________.
    stroma
  9. Connective tissue serves as transportation by carrying ______________, ____________ and allow diffusion of ________________ and ____________ to and from cells.
    • blood cells
    • solutes
    • nutrients
    • waste
  10. Connective tissue serves as an energy source by storing and releasing energy as ________.
    heat
  11. Connective tissue functions as storage for water and electrolytes as __________ in _______________ and _____________ in bone.
    • sodium
    • loose CT
    • calcium
  12. Connective tissue functions as defense and protection by controlling ____________ and performing ________________.
    • inflammation
    • tissue repair
  13. The composition of connective tissue is __________________ and_______________.
    • glycosaminoglycans
    • structural glycoproteins
  14. What are two major types of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)?
    sulfated types and non-sulfated type
  15. One major type of glycosaminoglycans are the sufated type that bind with protein which include ___________ sulfate, ___________ sulfate and ____________ sulfate.
    • dermatan
    • chondroitin
    • keratan
  16. The non-sulfated type of glycosaminoglycans do not bind with protein, as ________________.
    hyaluronic acid
  17. Tissue fluid is unbound water in connective tissue that contains _____________, leaked out of the capillaries.
    plasma proteins
  18. __________ is abnormal accumulation of tissue fluid.
    edema
  19. What are the functions of ground substance?
    • diffusion
    • storage
    • protection
  20. Ground substance functions  as diffusion by diffusing what?
    nutrients and wastes to and from cells.
  21. What does ground substance store?
    water and electrolytes
  22. How does ground substance function as protection?
    Viscous ground substance impedes bacterial movement.
  23. Gound substance is __________ area appearing empty under the light microscope.
    unstained
  24. What are the fibers found in ground substance of the extracellular matrix?
    • collagen fibers
    • reticular fibers
    • elastic fibers
  25. Which fibers are the most abundant in ground substance?
    collagen fibers
  26. Collagen type I forms collagen fibers that are present in __________, ______________ and __________.
    • tendons
    • organ capsules
    • dermis
  27. ____________ provides tensile strength in bones.
    Collagen type I
  28. Collagen type II forms ________ and is found in ____________.
    • fibrils
    • cartilage
  29. _________________ is the main component of reticular fibers.
    Collagen type III
  30. ______________ is in the basal laminae.
    Collagen type IV
  31. _________________ is caused by excessive accumulation of collagen (hypertrophy of connective tissue)
    Sclerosis
  32. How do collagen fibers appear under Light microscope?
    stains blue or green with trichrome stains
  33. What are the properties of collagen fibers?
    • inelastic
    • strong
    • flexible

    *its tensile strength is greater than steel
  34. Boiling or acid treatment ____________ collagen producing gelatin.

    Such treatments are used for what?
    denatures

    Tenderizing tough cuts of meat.
  35. _____________ is _______ and makes one third of the body's dry weight.
    • collagen
    • protein
  36. Collagen fibers form what?
    • tendons
    • ligaments
    • organ capsules
    • dermis
  37. Collagen fibers provide ____________ of bone and cartilage.
    tensile strength
  38. Reticular fibers are composed of what type of collagen?
    Type III
  39. How do reticular fibers appear a under light microscope?
    Demonstrated with the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction or silver stains.
  40. Reticular fibers support tissues and organs. They are numerous in ______________ and ______________ organs.
    • bone marrow
    • lymphatic
  41. Reticular fibers function as support in ___________________, the reticular layer.
    basement membranes
  42. Reticular fiber _________ leads to arterial and intestinal ruptures.
    deficiency
  43. How are elastic fibers formed?
    Cells secrete Pro elastin, which polymerize to elastin.
  44. Elastin is resistant to __________.
    tension
  45. _______________________ are in the blood vessel walls.
    Elastic laminae
  46. Describe the Light-microscope appearance of elastic fibers.
    • Red due to acidophilic nature.
    • Larger than individual collagen fibers.
    • They are branched.
  47. What are the properties of elastic fibers?
    • Elasticity: stretchable 50% of resting length w/o breaking
    • Stability
    • Blood flow maintenance
    • Support
  48. Elastic fibers maintain blood flow in the arteries laminae by acting as _______________.
    auxillary pumps
  49. ______________ propels blood between pulses.
    Elastic recoil
  50. Elastic fibers in the _______________ support the head in grazing animals.
    nuchal ligament
  51. What type of fibers can be seen?
    reticular fibers (silver stained)

    (lymphocytes between fibers)
  52. What type of fibers can be seen?
    elastic fibers
  53. What type of fibers can be seen?
    collagen fibers

    (also fibroblasts)
  54. There are 2 categories of connective tissue cells. What are they?
    • Resident cells: cells normally present in connective tissue
    • Immigrant cells: cells that enter connective tissue when needed
  55. What are the types of resident cells?
    • mesenchymal cells
    • pericytes
    • fibroblasts
    • reticular cells
    • adipocytes
    • mast cells
    • macrophages
  56. __________________ are undifferentiated embryonic connective tissue cells.
    mesenchyme cells
  57. What is the main connective tissue cell type?
    fibroblasts
  58. Spindle-shaped connective tissue cells consisting of multiple processes (stellate).
    fibroblasts
  59. Fibro_____ are active
    Fibro_____ are inactive
    • blast
    • cyte
  60. Under a Light Microscope, fibrocytes have ______________ cytoplasm and _________ nucleus.
    • acidophilic
    • dark
  61. Under a Light Microscope, fibroblasts have _____________ cytoplasm active in growth and wound healing. They become ____________ in wound healing.
    • basophilic
    • migratory
  62. Fibroblasts function to secrete what?
    • ground substance
    • collagen fibers
    • elastic fibers
    • reticular fibers
  63. _____________ cells are similar to fibroblasts but present only in reticular connective tissue and produce reticular fibers.
    reticular
  64. Fat cells; synthesize and store lipid.
    adipocytes
  65. Single lipid droplet, unilocular, that resembles a ring, with the nucleus at the ring with an unstained lipid droplet.
    white adipose cells
  66. What are the functions of white adipose cells?
    • Produce energy when diet does not provide energy needs.
    • Supports and cushions: digital pads
  67. Multilocular lipid droplets with large mitochondria and functions to produce heat.
    brown adipose cells
  68. Ovoid cells near small blood vessels with granular appearance.
    mast cells
  69. What does the cytoplasmic granules of mast cells contain?
    • heparin
    • histamine
    • chemotactic mediators
    • arachnoid acid
    • leukatriene
  70. an anticoagulant
    heparin
  71. What does histamine do?
    • Dilates and increase small blood vessels permeability
    • Produces edema of surrounding tissue
    • Increases WBC diapedesis
    • Causes contraction of small airways wall smooth muscle
  72. What in cytoplasmic granules of mast cells attract WBCs?
    chemotactic mediators
  73. What in cytoplasmic granules of mast cells protmote small blood vessel dilation?
    Arachnoid acid
  74. What in cytoplasmic granules of mast cells cause smooth muscle contractions?
    leukotriene
  75. Achromatic light microscope appearance of mast cells
    unstained granules in routine preparations
  76. Metachromatic light microscope appearance of mast cells
    the granules stain purple with toluidine blue
  77. Massive ___________ of mast cells causes anaphylactic shock.
    degranulation
  78. Macrophages(histeocytes) are derived from _____________________.
    hemopoietic stem cells
  79. Macrophages immediate source is ___________________ monocytes.
    monocytes
  80. phagocytes and anitgen producing cells that are irregular with an eccentric nucleus and have podocytes
    macrophages
  81. Where are macrophages distributed?
    Loose or reticular connective tissue
  82. The Mononuclear Phagocytic System (MPS) consists of:
    • Kupffer cells in the liver
    • Alveolar macrophages (dust cells)
    • Osteoclasts in bone
    • Microglia in the central nervous system (CNS)
  83. Immigrant cells are hemopoietic stem cells derived from what?
    WBCs entering the connective tissue in response to inflammation.
  84. Some immigrant cells are present normally in ______________ of the intestine.
    lamina propria
  85. What are the types of Immigrant connective tissue cells?
    • basophils
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • macrophages
  86. Plasma cells have an _________ nucleus with a ___________ cytoplasm and lightly visible golgi complex.
    • eccentric
    • basophilic
  87. Cells that have heterochromatin resembling a wagon wheel or clock face.
    plasma cells
  88. Plasma cells arise from ________________ and are present in what?
    • B lymphocytes
    • Chronically inflamed tissue
  89. Plasma cells produce _______________ for 10-20 days before they die.
    immunoglobulin (antibodies)
  90. What are the classifications of connective tissue?
    • Embryonic CT
    • Connective Tissue Proper
    • Specialized CT
  91. What are the types of embryonic CT?
    • mesenchymal CT
    • mucous CT
  92. What are the types of Connective Tissue Proper?
    • mesenchymal CT
    • Dense CT
    • Reticular tissue
    • Adipose tissue
  93. What are types of specialized CT?
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • blood
  94. Mesenchymal CT is composed of what?
    mesenchyme cells, amorphous material and few fibers
  95. Mucous CT is composed of what?
    • ground substance
    • few fibers
    • fibroblasts
  96. Mucous CT is present in what?
    • umbilical cord
    • hypodermis
    • developing tooth pulp
    • poultry comb
  97. CT that has large amounts of ground substance, rich in hyaluronic acid (which is viscous), has a few of the 2 fiber types, very vascular and contains abundant macrophages and fibroblasts.
    Loose CT
  98. Loose CT is present in what?
    • subcutaneous tissue
    • lamina propria
    • tela sub mucosa

    *stores water and electrolytes
  99. Dense CT is based on its ____________ fibers organization.
    fibers
  100. Bundles of collagen fibers running in different directions and fibroblasts present in Dense CT.
    Dense irregular CT
  101. ___________________ is found in organ capsules and in the dermis, resists stress and supports and protects the organs and skin.
    dense irregular CT
  102. Densely packed parallel collagen fibers and fibroblast cells are the only cells present in this dense CT.
    Dense Regular CT
  103. _______________________ is found in tendons, ligaments, and cornea providing strength and transparency. Provides attachment to the musculoskeletal system.
    Dense regular CT
  104. Branching elastic fibers are surrounded by ____________ to prevent the elastic fibers from being overstretched.
    collagen fibers
  105. _____________ are the only cells present in dense elastic CT.
    fibroblasts
  106. _________________ CT forms nuchal ligament and vertebral column ligagments.
    dense elastic
  107. Dense elastic CT is abundant in lungs and aortic wall. It allows vessels to ___________ with out breaking or distorting during cardiac systole.
    stretch
  108. CT composed of reticular cells and reticular fibers. It supports all blood-forming tissues and forms the stroma of all the blood-forming tissues.
    reticular tissue
  109. CT that synthesize and store fats and is richly vascularized and innervated.
    adipose CT
  110. Adipose CT functions:
    • Energy: fat is oxidized to produce ATP
    • Synthesize triglycerides from glucose
    • Provides structural support, cushioning and insulation
  111. Brown adipose tissue has large mitochondria which oxidize lipids to produce heat instead of ATP, it is limited to the:
    • axilla
    • mediastinum
    • prerenal fat
    • mesenteries

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