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What is life-safety rope?
- rope that meets the requirement of 1983
- dedicated solely for the purpose of constructing lines to be used for the raising, lowering, or supporting people during rescue, fire fighting, or other emergency operations or during training
What is utility rope?
- rope to be used in any situation that required a rope - except life safety applications
- can be used for hoisting equipment, securing unstable objects, and cordoning off an area
What are the main points of NFPA 1983
- manufacturers must supply info regarding use, inspection, maintenance, and criteria for retiring life-safety rope
- life safety rope that fails inspection must be "destroyed" meaning altered in such a way that it cannot be mistaken for life-safety rope and used by accident
- there are no NFPA standards for utility rope
What is natural fiber rope?
- rope made of hemp or cotton
- used for utility purposes
- not acceptable for life-safety rope
What is synthetic fiber rope?
- rope featuring continuous fibers running the entire length of the rope
- has excellent resistance to mildew and rotting
- easy to maintain
What is dynamic rope?
- rope that stretches farther than static rope stretches
- used when long falls are possible (ex - rock climbing)
- b/c elasticity is a disadvantage, it is not for rescue or hauling
What is static rope?
- used for most rope rescue incidents, rappelling, hauling, and where falls are not likely or very short are possible
- designed for low stretch w/o breaking
- must not elongate more than 10% when tested under a load equal to 10% of its breaking strength
What are the three types of life safety rope according to NFPA 1983?
- light use
- general use
What is light-use rope?
- a type of life safety rope
- 3/8-inch (9.5mm) to 1/2-inch (12.5mm) in diameter
- intended to support the weight of one person
- must have a minimum breaking strength of almost 4,500 pounds and maximum safe working load limit of 600 pounds
What is general use rope?
- a type of life safety rope
- 7/16-inch (11mm) in diameter or greater, but less than or equal to 5/8-inch (16mm)
- intended to support the weight two persons
- must have minimum safe working load limit of 600 pounds
What is throwline?
- a type of life safety rope
- 19/64-inch (7mm) diameter or greater, but less than 3/8-inch (9.5mm)
- used to tether rescuers during water rescues or to throw to a victim in water
- must have minimum breaking strength of almost 3,000 pounds and maximum safe working load limit of 200 pounds
What is the safety factor ratio in life-safety rope?
What is escape rope?
- not considered life-safety or utility
- constructed the same as life safety
- must meet generally the same elongation, breaking strength, and same working load requirements as throwline
- one-time use then destroyed
In order for life safety rope to be put back into service after use, these criteria must be met.
- must not be visibly damaged
- must not show abrasions or have been exposed to high temps or direct flame
- has not been impact loaded (force applied to rope when it suddenly stops a falling load)
- must not have been exposed to liquids, solids, gases, mists or vapors from any chemical or material that can deteriorate rope
- must pass inspection by qualified person before and after each use
What is kernmantle rope?
- jacketed rope that is composed of a braided covering or sheath (mantle) over a core (kern) of the main load-bearing strands
- core strands made up of high strength fibers, usually nylon and account for 75% of rope's total strength
- sheath makes up 25% rope's total strength and protects core
- comes in both high and low stretch
- high stretch used commonly as rock/ice climbing rope
What is laid (twisted) rope?
- rope constructed by twisting of several groups of individual strands together
- usually 3 strands twisted together to make final rope
- susceptible to abrasion and physical damage b/c it leaves all 3 load bearing strands exposed
- used almost exclusively as utility rope
What is braided rope?
- most are synthetic, constructed by uniformly intertwining strands of rope together
- load bearing fibers are subject to direct abrasion and damage
- most commonly used as utility rope
What is braid-on-braid rope (double braid)?
- jacketed rope constructed with both a braided core and braided sheath
- sheath is a herring-bone pattern
- very strong with equal amounts of strength in core and sheath
- does not resist damage as well as kernmantle
- sheath may slide along the inner core of the rope
- most commonly used as utility rope
According to NFPA 1983, how often should rope be inspected?
annually and after each use
How should kernmantle rope be inspected?
- pull slight tension on rope, feeling for lumps, depressions, or soft spots
- temporary soft spots may be simply misaligned from hard knots or sharp bends and can be determined by inspecting the outer sheath
- inspect for irregularities in shape or weave, foul smells, discoloration from chemical contamination, roughness, abrasions, or fuzziness (small amounts evenly are ok, but not excessive amounts in one spot)
How should laid rope be inspected?
- inspect for:
- soft/crusty spots
- stiff/brittle spots
- areas of excessive stretching
- cuts, nicks, or abrasion
- chemical damage
- dirt or grease
- obvious flaws
- foul smells
- untwist and check internally
How should braided rope be inspected?
- visually inspect for heat sears, nicks and cuts, unusual fuzzines
- inspect for permanent mushy spot or other deformities
How should brain-on-braid rope be inspected?
- inspect for heat sears, nicks and cuts
- inspect for the sheath sliding on the core (if sliding is found, cut end of rope and pull off excessive material, then seal the end)
- inspect for lumps that indicate core damage (reduction in diameter may indicate break in core)
What is a rope log?
- record kept by department throughout rope's working life
- log should contain: date of each use and inspection/maintenance records
- log should be kept in waterproof envelope inside rope's storage bag
How should natural fiber rope be cleaned?
- cannot be cleaned with water
- wipe or gently brush to remove as much dirt and grit as possible
How should synthetic fiber rope be cleaned?
- cool water and mild soap
- do not use bleach or strong cleaners
- may be stiffer after wash, but this is fine
- can be washed by hand, using a special rope-washing device, or by placing in front loading washing machine
- once washed, it should be spread out on hose rack out of direct sunlight, suspended in a hose tower or loosely coiled in hose bag
What is the running end?
part of the rope that is to be used for work such as hoisting, pulling, or belaying (free end)
What is the working end?
- part of the rope that is also used in forming the knot
- AKA: bitter end, or loose end
- end of the rope that is tied to the object being raised, lowered, or stabilized
What is the standing part?
that part of a rope between the working end and the running end
What is a bight?
formed by simply bending the rope back on itself while keeping the sides parallel
What is a loop?
loop is made by crossing the sides of a bight over the standing part
What is a round turn?
consists of further bending one side of a loop
What is an overhand safety knot?
knot used in conjunction with other knots to eliminate the danger of the running end of the rope slipping back through a knot, causing the knot to fail
What is a bowline knot?
knot used to form a loop in natural fiber rope
What is a haf-hitch?
- knot that is always used in conjunction with another knot
- particularly useful in stabilizing tall objects that are being hoisted
What is a clove hitch?
- knot that consists essentially of tow half-hitches
- principal use is to attch a rope to an object such as a pole, post, or hose
What is a becket bend?
- knot used for joining two ropes
- particularly well suited for joining ropes of unequal diameters or joining a rope and chain
- AKA sheet bend
What is a carabiner?
metal snap link used to connect elements of a rescue system together
What is a figure-eight plate?
used for rappelling or as a friction brake in lowering systems
What is a brake bar rack?
used for rappelling or as a friction brake
What is an ascender?
used to ascend vertical rope
What are pulleys?
used in rescue systems to change the direction or pull or create mechanical advantage
Use the ____________ method to maintain control of the rope during hoisting operations
hand over hand
Use an _______ or padding to protect rope from physical damage when it must be pulled over sharp edges such as cornices or parapet walls
How should a pike pole be hoisted?
- tie a clove hitch near the butt end of the handle
- tie a half hitch in the middle of the handle
- tie a another half hitch around the head
What knots should be used to hoist a ladder?
a bowling or figure eight on a bight slipped through the first two rungs
What is a class I harness?
- AKA seat harness
- fastens around the waist and around the thighs or under the buttocks
- rated for up to 300 pounds
What is a class II harness?
- fastens the same as a class I but is rated for up to 600 pounds
- looks exactly the same as class I so label must be read to determine class
What is a class III harness?
- AKA full body harness
- fastens around the waist, around the thighs or under buttocks and over the shoulders
- rated for 600 pounds
What is a ladder belt?
belt with a hook that secures the firefighter to the ladder