Pharmacology Exam I

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  1. Drug
    any substance that alters behavior, disease state; undergoes a metabolic process
  2. therapeutic vs. toxic
    the difference depends on dose. not all drugs are therapeutic
  3. Paraselsus
    1400 Ad found that all substances are poisonous, the dose determines the therapeutic and toxic responses
  4. Hippocrates
    ~300 BC; father of medicine
  5. Socrates
    first person publicly executed with drugs. he died from hemlock
  6. Hemlock
    drug that killed Socrates
  7. Coniine
    active substance in hemlock; binds by nicotinic receptor antagonist
  8. receptor
    protein "in or within" a cell where a drug can bind
  9. Agonist
    The drug acts as the agonist (ligand) that bonds to the receptor
  10. Antagonist
    occurs when the effect is blocked
  11. Antagonist bonds to the opposite side of the receptor of the drug
    there is no effect
  12. Competitive antagonist
    drug bonds to the same side as the antagonist
  13. Sympathetic
    releases Ach at the nicotinic receptor at pre-ganglionic synaps and then NE and Epi at the smooth muscle
  14. Parasympathetic
    releases Ach at nicotinic receptor at skeletal muscle
  15. Claude Bernard
    1856; investigated curare (works similar to coniine in that it binds to a nicotinc receptor modulator)
  16. Muscarinic receptor
    smooth muscle
  17. Nicoinic receptor
    skeletal muscle
  18. acetylcholinesterase
    breaks AcH into choline
  19. VX and sarin
    used in parkinson's disease; they are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that allows Ach buildup in the synaptic cleft. this buildup leads to respiratory arrest
  20. Langley and Ehrlich
    Receptor theorem in ~1900 AD
  21. Henry VIII
    royal company of physicians
  22. 1938; what did congress pass?
    the food, drug and cosmetic act because of sulfur based drugs
  23. Sulfur based antibiotics
    lipid soluble so they are hard for the body to absorb. Combined ethylene glycol for sulfur based drugs. Ethylene glycol is an antifreeze that causes crystals to form in the liver
  24. Kefaver Harris Amendment (1962)
    forced companies to perform pre-clinical studies which meant there was an increase in animal studies
  25. What was the reason why Kefaver Harris Amendment was passed?
    thalidomide caused birth defects in pregnant women mainly in the U.K.
  26. How much money does it take to bring a drug to the market form start to finish?
    800 million to 3 billion dollars
  27. Four stages of marketing a drug from start to finish
    Pre clinical RND, Clinical, ADA, Post-marketing survellance
  28. Pre-clinical RND
    discovery of drug by chemists to find new durg, animal testing and synthesiss
  29. Animal Testing (LDSO)
    usually the first test is done to see how much dosage can be taken; zebra fish (first animals that companies test), mice and rats, dogs (specifically beagles), monkeys (when they are near death; we are nicer to them)
  30. Clinical
    Phase I, II and III. Phase I trials are usually less than 50 people and are usually college men who need money. Phase II and III just have more people
  31. ADA
    new drug application to FDA
  32. Post-marketing surveillance
    anything that happens at this stage the company is held liable by the FDA for any adverses
  33. Why are beagles used?
    for cardiovascular studies
  34. How can drugs reach the receptor?
    orally, rectally, IM, IV, sub Q, internasally, sublingal, inhaling
  35. ADME
    absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
  36. What is the best way to distribute drugs all over the body?
  37. Before a drug reaches target, it must be absorbed by?
    passive diffusion (very small amount will travel by active transport)
  38. Passive diffusion
    lipid rich- must be lipid soluble because of the lipid bilayer int he membrane
  39. charged drugs
    have a more difficult time crossing the membrane weak acid (-) and weak base (+)
  40. neutral drugs with no charges
    pass the membrane easily; ex. ethnylesterdiolnorethindione (birth control); since neutral drugs pass easily they take a while to take affect
  41. Weak acid (ex. ibuprofen)
    acid drugs absorb in the stomach (ph ~12) because stomach is an acidic environment
  42. Weak base (ex. propanonol)
    absorbs in the intestine
Card Set:
Pharmacology Exam I
2013-09-15 18:19:41
pharm exam review part

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