CHEM Ch. 2

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Author:
kmarken
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234963
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CHEM Ch. 2
Updated:
2013-09-15 22:13:29
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scientific notation
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Measurements
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  1. Arrange from smallest to largest:
    milliliter, gigaliter, microliter
    • microliter
    • milliliter
    • gigaliter
  2. Arrange from smallest to largest:
    centigram, megagram, decigram
    • centigram
    • decigram
    • megagram
  3. Arrange from smallest to largest:
    micrometer, picometer, kilometer
    • picometer
    • micrometer
    • kilometer
  4. Arrange from smallest to largest:
    nanoliter, milliliter, centiliter
    • nanoliter
    • milliliter
    • centiliter
  5. A classroom contains 63 students.
    a) exact number
    b) inexact number
    a) exact number
  6. The car is traveling at a speed of 56 miles per hour.
    a) exact number
    b) inexact number
    a) exact number
  7. The temperature on the back porch is -3 degrees F.
    a) exact number
    b) inexact number
    a) exact number
  8. There are 3 feet in a yard.
    a) exact number
    b) inexact number
    • b) inexact number
    • (it is impossible to make an exact measurement)
  9. Determine the number of significant figures:
    23,009
    5
  10. Determine the number of significant figures:
    0.00231
    3
  11. Determine the number of significant figures:
    0.3330
    4
  12. Determine the number of significant figures:
    73,000
    2
  13. Determine the number of significant figures:
    73.000
    2
  14. Determine the number of significant figures:
    0.40040
    5
  15. Round off to 3 significant figures:
    327.123
    327
  16. Round off to 3 significant figures:
    3.6007
    3.60
  17. Round off to 3 significant figures:
    0.4567
    0.457
  18. Round off to 3 significant figures:
    04563
    456
  19. Convert to scientific notation:
    167,281.0
    1.67281 x 10^5
  20. Convert to scientific notation:
    0.006024
    6.024 x 10^-3
  21. Convert to scientific notation:
    19 x 10^-11
    1.9 x 10^-11+1 = 1.9 x 10^-10
  22. Convert to scientific notation:
    502.6 x 10^2
    5.026 x 10^2+2 = 5.026 x 10^4
  23. What is the value of this scientific notation?
    2.6 x 10^5
    260,000
  24. What is the value of this scientific notation?
    1.098 x 10^-3
    0.001098
  25. Express in scientific notation:
    37.22
    3.722 x 10^1
  26. Express in scientific notation:
    34.000
    3.4000 x 10^1
  27. Express in scientific notation:
    234,000
    2.34 x 10^5
  28. giga- G
    mega- M
    kilo- k
    deci- d
    centi- c
    milli- m
    micro- u
    nano- n
    pico- p
    • giga- 10^9
    • mega- 10^6
    • kilo- 10^3
    • deci- 10^-1
    • centi- 10^-2
    • milli- 10^-3
    • micro- 10^-6
    • nano- 10^-9
    • pico- 10^-12
  29. What is the higher temperature -15degC or 4degF?
    -15degC
  30. Air has a density of 1.29 g/L at room temp.
    Woud Helium gas (density = 0.18 g/L) rise or sink?
    • rise
    • (Helium density is less then air density)
  31. Air has a density of 1.29 g/L at room temp.
    Would Argon gas (density = 1.78 g/L) rise or sink?
    • sink
    • (Argon gas density is more than air density)
  32. Water has a density of 1.0 g/cm3 at room temp.
    Would Paraffin wax (density = 0.90 g/cm3) sink or float?
    • float
    • (Paraffin wax has less density than water density)
  33. Water has a density of 1.0 g/cm3 at room temp.
    Would Limestone (density = 2.8 g/cm3) wink or float?
    • sink
    • (Limestone density is more than water density)
  34. Mass
    amount of matter in an object (gram, pound, ton)
  35. Volume
    • amount of space an object occupies (cm3, mL, Gal, L, in3)
    • temperature dependent
    • 1.00 gal = 3.77 L
    • 1.00 mL = 1.00 cm3
    • Length: 1.00 in = 2.54 cm
  36. Kilogram (kg)
    • base unit of mass
    • 1889 international prototype of the kilogram is a 39 mm cylinder made of 90% platinum and 10% iridium
    • independent of temperature
  37. Exact numbers
    • Definitions - 12 objects in a dozen
    • Counting - 15 pretzels in a bowl
    • Simple fractions - 1/2 or 3/4

    Infinite number of sig figs
  38. Significant Figures
    "Sig Figs"
    • Zeros located at the beginning of a number are NEVER significant
    • Zeros located between nonzero digits are ALWAYS significant
    • Zeros located at the end of a number are significant only if the number has an explicitly shown decimal point
  39. How many sig figs?
    a) 3456
    b) 0.048
    c) 16.07
    d) 9.300
    e) 150
    • a) 4
    • b) 2 (leading zeros do not count)
    • c) 4
    • d) 4 (following zeros count if number contains a decimal point)
    • e) 2 (following zeros don't count because the number does not contain a decimal point -- in this case write in scientific notation -- 1.5 x 10^2)
  40. When multiplying exponential terms what do you do with the exponents?
    a) add
    b) subtract
    a) add
  41. When dividing exponential terms what do you do with the exponents?
    a) add
    b) subtract
    b) subtract
  42. Mass Unit Conversions
    • 1.00 lb = 454 g
    • 1.00 kg = 2.2046 lbs
    • 1.00 oz = 28.3 g
  43. Mass vs. Weight
    • Weight = mass X gravity
    • Analytical scale measures the force needed to counter sample (weight) and the acceleration of gravity. Then it solves the expression for mass which is displayed.
    • mass = weight / acceleration due to gravity
    • be careful of static electricity, tilting the balance, vibrations
  44. Density
    • Density = Mass / Volume
    • dependent on pressure and temperature

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