CHEM Ch. 2
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Arrange from smallest to largest:
milliliter, gigaliter, microliter
 microliter
 milliliter
 gigaliter

Arrange from smallest to largest:
centigram, megagram, decigram
 centigram
 decigram
 megagram

Arrange from smallest to largest:
micrometer, picometer, kilometer
 picometer
 micrometer
 kilometer

Arrange from smallest to largest:
nanoliter, milliliter, centiliter
 nanoliter
 milliliter
 centiliter

A classroom contains 63 students.
a) exact number
b) inexact number
a) exact number

The car is traveling at a speed of 56 miles per hour.
a) exact number
b) inexact number
a) exact number

The temperature on the back porch is 3 degrees F.
a) exact number
b) inexact number
a) exact number

There are 3 feet in a yard.
a) exact number
b) inexact number
 b) inexact number
 (it is impossible to make an exact measurement)

Determine the number of significant figures:
23,009
5

Determine the number of significant figures:
0.00231
3

Determine the number of significant figures:
0.3330
4

Determine the number of significant figures:
73,000
2

Determine the number of significant figures:
73.000
2

Determine the number of significant figures:
0.40040
5

Round off to 3 significant figures:
327.123
327

Round off to 3 significant figures:
3.6007
3.60

Round off to 3 significant figures:
0.4567
0.457

Round off to 3 significant figures:
04563
456

Convert to scientific notation:
167,281.0
1.67281 x 10^5

Convert to scientific notation:
0.006024
6.024 x 10^3

Convert to scientific notation:
19 x 10^11
1.9 x 10^11+1 = 1.9 x 10^10

Convert to scientific notation:
502.6 x 10^2
5.026 x 10^2+2 = 5.026 x 10^4

What is the value of this scientific notation?
2.6 x 10^5
260,000

What is the value of this scientific notation?
1.098 x 10^3
0.001098

Express in scientific notation:
37.22
3.722 x 10^1

Express in scientific notation:
34.000
3.4000 x 10^1

Express in scientific notation:
234,000
2.34 x 10^5

giga G
mega M
kilo k
deci d
centi c
milli m
micro u
nano n
pico p
 giga 10^9
 mega 10^6
 kilo 10^3
 deci 10^1
 centi 10^2
 milli 10^3
 micro 10^6
 nano 10^9
 pico 10^12

What is the higher temperature 15degC or 4degF?
15degC

Air has a density of 1.29 g/L at room temp.
Woud Helium gas (density = 0.18 g/L) rise or sink?
 rise
 (Helium density is less then air density)

Air has a density of 1.29 g/L at room temp.
Would Argon gas (density = 1.78 g/L) rise or sink?
 sink
 (Argon gas density is more than air density)

Water has a density of 1.0 g/cm3 at room temp.
Would Paraffin wax (density = 0.90 g/cm3) sink or float?
 float
 (Paraffin wax has less density than water density)

Water has a density of 1.0 g/cm3 at room temp.
Would Limestone (density = 2.8 g/cm3) wink or float?
 sink
 (Limestone density is more than water density)

Mass
amount of matter in an object (gram, pound, ton)

Volume
 amount of space an object occupies (cm3, mL, Gal, L, in3)
 temperature dependent
 1.00 gal = 3.77 L
 1.00 mL = 1.00 cm3
 Length: 1.00 in = 2.54 cm

Kilogram (kg)
 base unit of mass
 1889 international prototype of the kilogram is a 39 mm cylinder made of 90% platinum and 10% iridium
 independent of temperature

Exact numbers
 Definitions  12 objects in a dozen
 Counting  15 pretzels in a bowl
 Simple fractions  1/2 or 3/4
Infinite number of sig figs

Significant Figures
"Sig Figs"
 Zeros located at the beginning of a number are NEVER significant
 Zeros located between nonzero digits are ALWAYS significant
 Zeros located at the end of a number are significant only if the number has an explicitly shown decimal point

How many sig figs?
a) 3456
b) 0.048
c) 16.07
d) 9.300
e) 150
 a) 4
 b) 2 (leading zeros do not count)
 c) 4
 d) 4 (following zeros count if number contains a decimal point)
 e) 2 (following zeros don't count because the number does not contain a decimal point  in this case write in scientific notation  1.5 x 10^2)

When multiplying exponential terms what do you do with the exponents?
a) add
b) subtract
a) add

When dividing exponential terms what do you do with the exponents?
a) add
b) subtract
b) subtract

Mass Unit Conversions
 1.00 lb = 454 g
 1.00 kg = 2.2046 lbs
 1.00 oz = 28.3 g

Mass vs. Weight
 Weight = mass X gravity
 Analytical scale measures the force needed to counter sample (weight) and the acceleration of gravity. Then it solves the expression for mass which is displayed.
 mass = weight / acceleration due to gravity
 be careful of static electricity, tilting the balance, vibrations

Density
 Density = Mass / Volume
 dependent on pressure and temperature