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disease/finding: primary liver cancer
most common/important association: ??
hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α_{1} antitrypsin deficiency)

disease/finding: pulmonary hypertension
most common/important association: ??
COPD

disease/finding: recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
most common/important association: ??
Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

disease/finding: renal tumor
most common/important association: ??
renal cell carcinoma: associated with von HippelLindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic synds (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

disease/finding: right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
most common/important association: ??
Cor pulmonale

disease/finding: S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
most common/important association: ??
inc venticular filling (left to right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

S4 (presystolic gallop)
most common/important association: ??
stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

disease/finding: secondary hyperparathyroidism
most common/important association: ??
hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

disease/finding: sexually transmitted disease
most common/important association: ??
chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

disease/finding: SIADH
most common/important association: ??
small cell carcinoma of the lung

disease/finding: site of diverticula
most common/important association: ??
sigmoid colon

disease/finding: sites of atherosclerosis
most common/important association: ??
abd aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

disease/finding: stomach cancer
most common/important association: ??
adenocarcinoma

disease/finding: stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
most common/important association: ??
ZollingerEllison synd (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

disease/finding: t(14;18)
most common/important association: ??
follicular lymphomas (bcl2 activation)

disease/finding: t(8;14)
most common/important association: ??
burkitt's lymphoma (cmyc activation)

t(9;22)
most common/important association: ??
philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcrabl fusion)

disease/finding: temporal arteritis
most common/important association: ??
risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

disease/finding: testicular tumor
most common/important association: ??
seminoma

disease/finding: thyroid cancer
most common/important association: ??
papillary carcinoma

disease/finding: tumor in women
most common/important association: ??
leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

disease/finding: tumor of infancy
most common/important association: ??
hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

disease/finding: tumor of adrenal medulla (adults)
most common/important association: ??
pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

disease/finding: tumor of adrenal medulla (kids)
most common/important association: ??
neuroblastoma (usually malignant)

disease/finding: type of Hodgkin's
most common/important association: ??
nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

disease/finding: type of non Hodgkin's
most common/important association: ??
diffuse large cell

disease/finding: UTI
most common/important association: ??
E.coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

disease/finding: viral encephalitis effecting the temporal lobe
most common/important association: ??
HSV1

disease/finding: vit deficiency (U.S)
most common/important association: ??
folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3 to 4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects)

topic: sensitivity
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: specificity
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: positive predictive value
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: negative predictive value
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: odds ratio (for case control studies)
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: relative risk
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: attributable risk
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: number needed to treat
what is it and what is its equation??
NNT =1/absolute risk reduction

topic: number needed to harm
what is it and what is its equation??
NNH = 1/attributable risk

topic: body mass index
what is it and what is its equation??

 the weight is in kgs and the height is taken in meters

topic: Hardy weinberg equation
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: volume of distribution
what is it and what is its equation??
v_{d }= amt of drug in the body/plama drug conc

topic: half life
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: drug clearance
what is it and what is its equation??
CL = rate of elimination of drug/plasma drug conc
 K_{e} = elimiantion constant

topic: loading dose
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: maintenance dose
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: cardiac output
what is it and what is its equation??
co = rate of o2 consumption/(arteial o2 content minus venous o2 content)

topic: mean arterial pressure
what is it and what is its equation??
 MAP = cardiac output x total peripheral resistance

topic: stroke volume
what is it and what is its equation??
 SV = CO/HR = EDVESV
 SV is effected by contractility, afterload and preload
 inc SV when inc preload, dec afterload, or inc contractility

topic: ejection fraction
what is it and what is its equation??
 EF = SV/EDV = [EDVESV]/EDV
 EF is an index of ventricular contractility
 normally > or = 55%
 it dec in systolic failure

topic: resistance
what is it and what is its equation??
R = driving pr(ΔP) / flow(Q)
R = 8η(viscosity)(length)/πr ^{4
}total resistance of vessels in series = R1+R2+R3....
 1/total resistance in parallel = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3........
 viscosity depends mostly on hematocrit
 viscosity inc in
 a) polycythemia
 b) hyperproteinemic states (multiple myeloma)
 c) hereditary spherocytosis
 viscosity decreases in anemia
 arterioles account for most of the TPR and thus regulate capillary flow

topic: net filtration pressure
what is it and what is its equation??
 _{}P_{net} = [(P_{c}P_{i})  (Π_{c}Π_{i})]
 J_{v} = net fluid flow = (K_{f})(P_{net})
 edema or excess fluid outflow into interstitium commonly caused by
 a) inc in capillary pr (heart failure)
 b) dec in plasma pro (nephrotic, liver failure)
 c) inc capillary permiability (inc K_{f}; toxins, infections, burns)
 d) inc in intestitial fluid colloid osmotic pr (lymphatic blockade)

topic: renal clearance
what is it and what is its equation??
C_{x} = U_{x}V/P_{x
volume of plasma from which the substance is cleared completely per unit timeCx < GFR: net tubular reabsroption of XCx > GFR: net tubular secretion of XCx = GFR: no net secretion or reabsorptionUx  urine conc of XPx  plasma conc of XV  urine flow rateunits of CL  mL/min
}

topic: glomerular filtration rate
what is it and what is its equation??
GFR = U _{inulin} x V/P _{inulin} = C _{inulin}_{}
 GFR = K_{f}[(P_{GC}  P_{bs})  (Π_{GC}  Π_{bs})]
 inulin clearance can be used to calculate GFR because it is freely filtered and is neither reabsorbed nor secreted
 GC  glomerular capillary
 BS  bowman's space
 normal GFR ~ 100 ml/min
 creatinine clearance is an app measure of GFR
 Slightly overestimates GFR as creatinine is moderately secreted by the renal tubules
 incremental reductions in GFR define the stages of chronic kidney disease

topic: effective renal plasma flow
what is it and what is its equation??
 ERPF can be estimated using PAH clearance because it is both filtered and actively secreted in the proximal tubule
 all PAH entering the kidney is excreted
 ERPF underestimates true RPF by ~10%

topic: renal blood flow
what is it and what is its equation??
renal blood flow = RPF/(1Hct)

topic: filteration fraction
what is it and what is its equation??
 FF = GFR/RPF
 normal FF is 20%
 filtered load = GFR x Plasma conc
 GFR can be estimated by creatinine clearance
 RPF is best estimated with PAH clearance

topic: HendersonHesselbalch equation (for extracellular pH)
what is it and what is its equation??

topic: physiological dead space
what is it and what is its equation??
 V_{D} = physiological dead space = antomical dead space of conducting airways plus functional dead space in alveoli; apex of healthy lung is the largest contributor of func dead space. Volume of inspired air that does not take part in gas exhange
 V_{T} = tidal volume
 Paco2 = arterial Pco2
 Peco2 = expired air Pco2
 code: Taco, Paco, Peco, Paco (refers to the order of variables in eq)

topic: pulmonary vascular resistance
what is it and what is its equation??
 PVR = (P_{pulm artery } P_{L atrium})/ cardiac output
 remember: ΔP = QxR; so R = ΔP/Q
 R = 8ηl/πr^{4}_{}
 P_{pulm artery }=pr in pulm artery
 P_{lt atrium }= pr in lt atrium
 η = viscosity of blood
 l = vessel length
 r = vessel radius

topic: alveolar gas equation
what is it and what is its equation??
 PAo_{2} = PIo_{2 } (PaCO_{2}/R)
 can normally be approximated to PA0_{2} = 150  (PaCO_{2}/0.8)
 PAo2 = alveolar Po2
 PIo2 = Po2 in inspired air
 PaCo2 = arterial Pco2
 R = respiratiory quotient = co2 produced/o2 consumed
 Aa gradient may occur in hypoxemia; causes include shunting, V/Q mismatch, fibrosis (impairs diffusion)

