rapid review 7

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Author:
theapk200
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234967
Filename:
rapid review 7
Updated:
2013-09-15 14:48:51
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mle
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  1. disease/finding: primary liver cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α1 antitrypsin deficiency)
  2. disease/finding: pulmonary hypertension
    most common/important association: ??
    COPD
  3. disease/finding: recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
    most common/important association: ??
    Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
  4. disease/finding: renal tumor
    most common/important association: ??
    renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic synds (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)
  5. disease/finding: right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
    most common/important association: ??
    Cor pulmonale
  6. disease/finding: S3 (protodiastolic gallop)
    most common/important association: ??
    inc venticular filling (left to right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])
  7. S4 (presystolic gallop)
    most common/important association: ??
    stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
  8. disease/finding: secondary hyperparathyroidism
    most common/important association: ??
    hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
  9. disease/finding: sexually transmitted disease
    most common/important association: ??
    chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)
  10. disease/finding: SIADH
    most common/important association: ??
    small cell carcinoma of the lung
  11. disease/finding: site of diverticula
    most common/important association: ??
    sigmoid colon
  12. disease/finding: sites of atherosclerosis
    most common/important association: ??
    abd aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery
  13. disease/finding: stomach cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    adenocarcinoma
  14. disease/finding: stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
    most common/important association: ??
    Zollinger-Ellison synd (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
  15. disease/finding: t(14;18)
    most common/important association: ??
    follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
  16. disease/finding: t(8;14)
    most common/important association: ??
    burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
  17. t(9;22)
    most common/important association: ??
    philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)
  18. disease/finding: temporal arteritis
    most common/important association: ??
    risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica
  19. disease/finding: testicular tumor
    most common/important association: ??
    seminoma
  20. disease/finding: thyroid cancer
    most common/important association: ??
    papillary carcinoma
  21. disease/finding: tumor in women
    most common/important association: ??
    leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)
  22. disease/finding: tumor of infancy
    most common/important association: ??
    hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)
  23. disease/finding: tumor of adrenal medulla (adults)
    most common/important association: ??
    pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
  24. disease/finding: tumor of adrenal medulla (kids)
    most common/important association: ??
    neuroblastoma (usually malignant)
  25. disease/finding: type of Hodgkin's
    most common/important association: ??
    nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
  26. disease/finding: type of non Hodgkin's
    most common/important association: ??
    diffuse large cell
  27. disease/finding: UTI
    most common/important association: ??
    E.coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
  28. disease/finding: viral encephalitis effecting the temporal lobe
    most common/important association: ??
    HSV-1
  29. disease/finding: vit deficiency (U.S)
    most common/important association: ??
    folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3 to 4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects)
  30. topic: sensitivity
    what is it and what is its equation??
  31. topic: specificity
    what is it and what is its equation??
  32. topic: positive predictive value
    what is it and what is its equation??
  33. topic: negative predictive value
    what is it and what is its equation??
  34. topic: odds ratio (for case control studies)
    what is it and what is its equation??
  35. topic: relative risk
    what is it and what is its equation??
  36. topic: attributable risk
    what is it and what is its equation??
  37. topic: number needed to treat
    what is it and what is its equation??
    NNT =1/absolute risk reduction
  38. topic: number needed to harm
    what is it and what is its equation??
    NNH = 1/attributable risk
  39. topic: body mass index
    what is it and what is its equation??
    •   
    • the weight is in kgs and the height is taken in meters
  40. topic: Hardy weinberg equation
    what is it and what is its equation??


  41. topic: volume of distribution
    what is it and what is its equation??
    v= amt of drug in the body/plama drug conc
  42. topic: half life
    what is it and what is its equation??
  43. topic: drug clearance
    what is it and what is its equation??
    CL = rate of elimination of drug/plasma drug conc



    • Ke = elimiantion constant
  44. topic: loading dose
    what is it and what is its equation??
  45. topic: maintenance dose
    what is it and what is its equation??
  46. topic: cardiac output
    what is it and what is its equation??
    co = rate of o2 consumption/(arteial o2 content minus venous o2 content)
  47. topic: mean arterial pressure
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • MAP = cardiac output x total peripheral resistance
  48. topic: stroke volume
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • SV = CO/HR = EDV-ESV
    • SV is effected by contractility, afterload and preload
    • inc SV when inc preload, dec afterload, or inc contractility
  49. topic: ejection fraction
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • EF = SV/EDV = [EDV-ESV]/EDV
    • EF is an index of ventricular contractility
    • normally > or = 55%
    • it dec in systolic failure
  50. topic: resistance
    what is it and what is its equation??
    R = driving pr(ΔP) / flow(Q)

    R = 8η(viscosity)(length)/πr4

    total resistance of vessels in series = R1+R2+R3....

    • 1/total resistance in parallel = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3........
    • viscosity depends mostly on hematocrit
    • viscosity inc in 
    • a) polycythemia
    • b) hyperproteinemic states (multiple myeloma)
    • c) hereditary spherocytosis
    • viscosity decreases in anemia
    • arterioles account for most of the TPR and thus regulate capillary flow
  51. topic: net filtration pressure
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • Pnet = [(Pc-Pi) - (Πci)]
    • Jv = net fluid flow = (Kf)(Pnet)

    • edema or excess fluid outflow into interstitium commonly caused by
    • a) inc in capillary pr (heart failure)
    • b) dec in plasma pro (nephrotic, liver failure)
    • c) inc capillary permiability (inc Kf; toxins, infections, burns)
    • d) inc in intestitial fluid colloid osmotic pr (lymphatic blockade)
  52. topic: renal clearance
    what is it and what is its equation??
    Cx = UxV/Px

    • volume of plasma from which the substance is cleared completely per unit time
    • Cx < GFR: net tubular reabsroption of X
    • C> GFR: net tubular secretion of X
    • Cx = GFR: no net secretion or reabsorption
    • U- urine conc of X
    • Px - plasma conc of X
    • V - urine flow rate
    • units of CL - mL/min
  53. topic: glomerular filtration rate
    what is it and what is its equation??
    GFR = Uinulin x V/Pinulin = Cinulin

    • GFR = Kf[(PGC - Pbs) - (ΠGC - Πbs)] 
    • inulin clearance can be used to calculate GFR because it is freely filtered and is neither reabsorbed nor secreted
    • GC - glomerular capillary
    • BS - bowman's space
    • normal GFR ~ 100 ml/min
    • creatinine clearance is an app measure of GFR
    • Slightly overestimates GFR as creatinine is moderately secreted by the renal tubules
    • incremental reductions in GFR define the stages of chronic kidney disease
  54. topic: effective renal plasma flow
    what is it and what is its equation??


    • ERPF can be estimated using PAH clearance because it is both filtered and actively secreted in the proximal tubule 
    • all PAH entering the kidney is excreted
    • ERPF underestimates true RPF by ~10%
  55. topic: renal blood flow
    what is it and what is its equation??
    renal blood flow = RPF/(1-Hct)
  56. topic: filteration fraction
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • FF = GFR/RPF
    • normal FF is 20%
    • filtered load = GFR x Plasma conc
    • GFR can be estimated by creatinine clearance
    • RPF is best estimated with PAH clearance
  57. topic: Henderson-Hesselbalch equation (for extracellular pH)
    what is it and what is its equation??
  58. topic: physiological dead space
    what is it and what is its equation??


    • VD = physiological dead space = antomical dead space of conducting airways plus functional dead space in alveoli; apex of healthy lung is the largest contributor of func dead space. Volume of inspired air that does not take part in gas exhange
    • VT = tidal volume
    • Paco2 = arterial Pco2
    • Peco2 = expired air Pco2
    • code: Taco, Paco, Peco, Paco (refers to the order of variables in eq)
  59. topic: pulmonary vascular resistance
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • PVR = (Ppulm artery - PL atrium)/ cardiac output
    • remember: ΔP = QxR; so R = ΔP/Q
    • R = 8ηl/πr4
    • Ppulm artery =pr in pulm artery
    • Plt atrium = pr in lt atrium
    • η = viscosity of blood
    • l = vessel length
    • r = vessel radius
  60. topic: alveolar gas equation
    what is it and what is its equation??
    • PAo2 = PIo- (PaCO2/R)
    • can normally be approximated to PA02 = 150 - (PaCO2/0.8)
    • PAo2 = alveolar Po2
    • PIo2 = Po2 in inspired air
    • PaCo2 = arterial Pco2
    • R = respiratiory quotient = co2 produced/o2 consumed
    • A-a gradient may occur in hypoxemia; causes include shunting, V/Q mismatch, fibrosis (impairs diffusion)

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