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The study of human development seeks to understand how and why people change or remain the same over time.
Dynamic Systems Theory
A view of human develoment in which life is the product of an ongoing interaction between the PHYSICAL and EMOTIONAL being and between the Person and every aspect of his/her environment (including family and society).
- A view of human development in which life is supported by systems at five levels.
- Urie Bronfenbrenner- leader of understanding ecological systems approach.
- look at the whole system.
- A person's immediate social surrounding that shapes the individual.
- Ex- family, close friends
- Local institutions.
- School, Churches
- Larger social setting.
- Ex- Culture, values, economy, political, geographies.
What are the 5 characteristics of Development?
Multidirectional, Multicontextual, Multicultural, Multidisciplinary, and Plasticity.
Scientific Method-(and order)
- The formulation and experimental testing of hypothesis about natural events and relationships.
- 1. Question
- 2. Hypothesis
- 3. Test Hypothesis (Experiement)
- 4. Collect Data (Conclusion)
- 5. Publish
Replication- ability to test over and over.
What are the 4 ways to test hypothesis?
- 1. Observation
- 2. Experiment
- 3. Survey
- 4. Case Study
- Method of watching and recording the behavior of subjects in certain situations either in labs in natural settings.
- ex- naturalistic observation
- Research method that seeks to determine cause.
- Independent variable being measured.
A research method that collects info from a large number of people by personal interviews or written questionaries.
The Case Study
A research design that examines one person or situation intensity over an extended period of time.
Cross- Sectional Research
A type of research Designed to compare groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics.
Design in which the same individuals are followed over long period of time.
Cross- Sequential Research
- Design to study several groups at different ages and follow over the years.
- Combines cross- sectional and longitudinal research.
Correlation does NOT prove causation.
A systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent frame work for understanding how and why people change as they grow.
- A type of developmental theories that is a comprehensive theory of psychology which have traditionally inspired and guided psychologist in thinking about development.
- ex- psychoanalytic, behaviorism, cognitive
- A type of developmental theories that is a collection of newer comprehensive theories that bring together infor from many disciples.
- ex- sociocultural and epigenetic.
- A grand theory that interprets human development in terms of inner drives and motives
- Irrational and unconscious
- One of the biological units of heredity located on a chromatin.
- Basic unit for the transmission of heredity.
- A nucleic acid found in all living things
- Carries the organism's hereditary info.
- Provides chemical instructions for cells to maufacture various proteins.
- Threadlike bodies, tightly coiled Chromatin; visible during cell division.
- A molecule of DNA that contains the instructions to make proteins.
- Humans have 46 (23 pairs) = to around 25,000 genes.
A reproductive cell ( sperm or ovum) can produce a new individual if it combines with a gamete from opposite sex and makes a zygote.
Single cell organism formed during conception by the union of 2 gametes.
An organism's entire genetic inheritance or genetic potential.
- Observational characteristic of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, etc.
- What can be observed.
Dominant- Recessive heredity
The interation of a pair of genes with variations in such a way that the phenotype reveals the dominant gene more than the recessive gene.
- Grand theory that emphasizes the laws/ processes by which behavior is learned.
- Father of Behaviorism- Watson (he questioned Freud)
- Pavlov- learned behaviorism. step by step.
Respondant condition- a person/animal is conditioned to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one.
Instrumental- learning process by which a particular actions followed by something desired- the person repeat action.
A technique for conditioning behavior where behavior's followed by something desired.
Social Learning Theory
An extenstion of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence other people have over a person's behavior
The central process of social learning by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them.
- Focuses on changes in how people Think over time.
- Emphasizes the structure and development of thought and how these thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
Gain knowledge of world through actions that let them experience and manipulate objects.
- The ability to construct mental representations of experences.
- Uses symbols as language and drawings to represent ideas.
Ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations to perform mental operations on actual/physical events.
Ability to think logically and abstract principles and hypothetical situations, to perform hypo. reasoning, classification, logical thought, abstract thinking, and deal with hypothesis situations.
- Incorporate new events into existing schemas.
- Integrates new info into existing behavior patterns
- Term from Piaget.
- Changes a schema.
- Alters a belief to make it compatible with experience. (older ideas reconstructed)
- An emergent theory that seeks to explain development as the result of the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces.
mentor helps learner learn
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learners close to accquiring but cannont master without help.
- Emphasizes the genetic orgins of behavior but also stresses how genes, over time, are directly systematically affected by environmental forces.
- Development is best understood as mix of nature and nurture.
Dizygotic (Fraternal twins)
Result from 2 sperm penetrating 2 ova and share 50% of their genes.
Monozygotic (Identical twins)
Originate from 1 zygote, and share 100% genes.
An organism that is produced from another organism through artificial replication of cells and is genetically identical to the organism.
Assisted Reproductive Tech (ART)
- A general term for the technique design to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy.
- Ex- In Vitro fertilization- petry dish
General Principles of Genotypes and Phenotypes
- 1. Genes affect every aspect of human behavior, social, and cognitive behavior.
- 2. Most environmental influences on children raised in the same home are not shared.
- 3. Each child's genes elicit other people's responses, and these responses shape development. Child's environment is partly the result of his/her genes.
- 4.Children, adolescents, and especially adults choose environments that are compatable with their genes (niche-picking). Genetic influences increase in adulthood.
A person who has a recessive gene that is not expossed in his/her phenotype but that can be passed on to the person's offspring.
How can studying chromosomal and genetic abnormalites help the study of development?
- Provides insight into the complexites of nature and nurture.
- Knowing their origins helps limit these effects.
- Info combats the prejudice that surrounds such problems.
The study of the effects of heredity on behavior and psychological characteristics.
Not having 46 Chromosomes
This usually occurs with chromosomal abnormalites and bc of the age of the mother.
Sudden change in segment of DNA due to environmental agents.
- Having a condidtion involving mixture of cells.
- Some normal and some with odd number.
What are some characteristics of Trisomy 21 (downsyndrome)?
- Eyes, Tongue, Heart issue, shorter, more prone to cancer.
- Its call trisomy 21 bc they have an extra chromosone on the 21st pair.
- Chances increase with mothers age.
Abnormalites of 23rd pair
- The embryo can't develop without an X chromosome.
- Klinefelter Syndrome- Have an extra X chromosomes. Manly in boys. results- underdeveloped sex organs, extreme height.
- looks like- XXY.
Dominant- Gene Disorders
Everyone carries genes that could produce serious diseases or handicaps in next generation.
Recessive Gene Disorder
- Not X linked
- One recessive gene is protective.
- Sickle cell anemia- blood disorder that gets name from shape of red blood cells.
Genetic Counseling and testing
Consulation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about genetic heritage.
Who would benefit from Genetic Counseling?
- Older women wanting to be pregant
- Adopted child that doesn't know family background.
- Anybody in family with genetic condition.
- Couples who have history of miscarriage.
- Couples of same ethnic group.
The process by which a sperm and an ovum- the male and female gametes- join together to form a single new cell.
The most drastic changes occur in this stage before the baby is even born.
- Rapid cell division and cell differentiation.
- 0-2 weeks
- Body structures and internal organs
- Head is 50% of body.
- 3-8 weeks
- Organs grow in size and mature in functioning.
- 9 weeks- birth
The inner layer of cells or cell mass with distinct characteristics that develop the first few days after fertilization.
An organ that surrounds the developing embryo serving as a conduct between mother and fetus providing nourishment and oxygen via the umbilical cord.
A life support system for embryo that contains 2 arteries and one vein which connect to placenta.
Process in which attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine wall occurs 10 days after fertilization.
- 3-8 weeks
- Ground work for all body structures and major organs to develop.
- 22 days- neural tube develops (nervous system)
- Beating heart begins, buds develop will become arms and legs
- eyes and face
- 9th week to Birth, 3 inches 3 oz
- A developing organism from the 9th week after conception until birth.
- Sex organs develop.
- Brain development is significant
- Age of viability
- 1. First trimester- first 3 months- fetus has all its body parts, but it is too small to survive out of womb.
- 2. 2nd trimester- middle 3 months, brain increases about 6 times in size. Age of V
- 3. 3rd Trimester- final 3 months. viability- life outside of womb is possible. Difference in preterm and newborns is the maturation of neurological, respiratory, cardio. Cerebral cortex enlarges- greater responsiveness to stimulation, distinguish sounds and voices.
Age of Viability
- 22 weeks after conception
- Age that baby can survive outside womb, with medical care.
Refers to any environmental agent (viruses, drugs, stressors, malnutrition and chemicals) that causes damage during the prenatal period.
Risk Factors- time of exposure, amount of exposure (threshold and interaction effect), and genetic vulnerablity.
Fetal Alchohol Syndrone
- Cluster of birth defects that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink substanial amounts of alcohol while pregnant.
- Effects- far apart eyes, no upper lip
An image of the fetus taken with sound waves.
The process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn from the amniotic fluid.
A blood test done at midnight pregnancy to determine if the fetus might have a neural tube defect or downsyndrone.
- The standard measurement system that quickly assesses and looks fr a variety of indications for good health of a newborns body functioning.
- A- appearance- skin color
- P- pulse- heart rate
- G- grimace- reflexes (sneezes, cough,etc)
- A- activity- muscle tone and movement
- R- respiratory effort- slow irregular crying
APGAR is given twice.
Insufficent supply of oxygen that can cause brain damage of death to the baby.
Low Birthweight (LBW)
Infants born after a regular period of gestation (38-42) but weigh less than 5 1/2 lbs.