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How old is psychology as a science?
About 130 years old.
What is development psychology?
The study of people and how they change as they age.
What is physiological psychology?
- The investigation of the extent to which behavior is affected by conditions in the body.
- What is going on in the brain, nervous system, and biochemistry.
What is experimental psychology?
The investigation of processes like learning, memory, sensation, perception, thinking, motivation, and emotion through experiments.
What is personality psychology?
The concentration on the differences in people traits like anxiety, sociability, self esteem, aggressiveness and need for recognition. (Freud)
What is clinical and counseling psychology?
- The diagnosis of causes and treatments of psychological disorders.
- About half of psychologist specialize here.
- Concerned with "normal" problem of adjustments.
What is social psychology?
The study of the influence people have on one another. Blends with sociology.
What is industrial and organization psychology?
It addresses the problems of training personnel, improving work conditions, and studying the effects of automation on humans. Automation is like working in a factory doing the same monotonous thing over and over.
What is educational and school psychology?
The study of learning, remembering, and thinking. They apply this knowledge into training teachers and designing curriculum.
What is psychology?
The science of behavior, and mental processes with the goal of application to make life better for everyone.
What are the goals of psychology?
Describe, Explain, Predict, and Control.
What is a survey and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
- A way to obtain a lot data by having people answer questions.
- Efficient way to get a lot of data cheaply.
- People may lie, the survey group may not be large enough, and the question may be phrased wrong.
What is an interview, and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
- Obtaining info by asking question in a one on one manner.
- More indepth information and the interviewer can read body language.
- The person may give a false answer.
What is a questionnaire, and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
- Like a survey, a way to obtain a lot of info by having people fill out questions.
- A way to get a lot of data.
- The data may easily be skewed based on the phrasing of the question.
What is a standardized test, and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
- A test that shows reliable results a majority of the time. Used to asses learning. Like the ACT, MAP, and MME.
- Comparisons can easily be made between large amount of people.
- They may be biased to a certain group.
What is a case study, and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
- An in-depth analysis of thoughts, feelings, beliefs, etc.., of one person.
- A greater understanding can be obtained from the in-depth study.
- May only apply to one person because of how specific the information is.
What is a natural observation, and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
- Observing someone in a non-controlled situation.
- You can see how they naturally act in real life situations.
- The researchers bias may come into play. One person may see not talking as an angry action or another may see it as peaceful.
What is a laboratory observation, and what are the advantages and disadvantages?
- The situation is controlled in a synthetic environment. (Baby Lab!:D )
- Variables may be controlled to gather more specific data on what caused the behavior.
- May become too controlled and no longer relevant to real life.
What is an experiment, and what are the advantages and disadvantages? (Animals vs. Humans)
- A method for identifying cause and effect by using the scientific method.
- Less errors are likely to happen. Animals can be easily disposable and less rules are put on what you can do to them. You can work directly with a human.
- Into may not apply to real life. Humans are less disposable than animals. Not everything relevant to animals are relevant to humans.
What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
The person will have a strong idea of what they think the results will be and subtly, possibly subconsciously, act to make that result happen.
What is the placebo effect?
A change in the person's illness attributed to an imagined treatment rather than an actual medical treatment. A sugar pill for example rather than a drug.
What is correlation?
Correlation can be vague and may not show a direct cause and effect scenario. Like students who wear uniforms get higher test scores. People may think it is because of the uniforms the students get the scores.
What is included in the APA's ethics?
A code of conduct that includes the protection the test subject. Shock therapy, subject disclosure, animal experiments, and sexual conduct are all touchy subjects in the guidelines.
What did Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Bradford Titchener do?
Wundt set up the first formal psychology lab in 1879. They believed everyone went through the same stages and experiences in their growth.
What did William James do?
He was the 1st american born psychologist and studied how a living being uses its perceptual abilities to function.
Who was John B. Watson?
He was concerned with observable and measurable behaviors. Based his research off Palov's experiments in stimulus response terms. (Palov's Dog)
What is the Gestalt theory?
A theory concerned with how people perceive and experience objects as a whole pattern. When we see a tree we the whole tree not just a leaf.
What did B. F. Skinner believe?
Conditioning through reinforcements.