bio 115

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bio 115
2013-09-15 17:49:25
chapter part

quiz 1 on characteristics of cells and life
Show Answers:

  1. what is the most basic unit of living things
  2. what is the cells shape
    tends to be spherical or cylindrical
  3. what is the internal contact of the cell and what is it surrounded by
    • cytoplasm which is the liquid potion
    • surrounded by cell membrane aka plasma membrane which is the outer boundary
  4. what do cells have
    • chromosomes containing DNA
    • ribosomes production of protein
  5. what is DNA
    genetic material
  6. what are the two basic type of cells
    • prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  7. where are prokaryotes found
    only in bacteria and archaea
  8. which cell is smaller
  9. which cell has a nucleus? what does the other cell have?
    • eukaryotic have nucleus
    • prokaryotic DNA are housed in a nucleoid region
  10. which cell has organelles
    • eukaryotic
    • prokaryotic don't
  11. what are the properties of life
    • heredity and reproduction
    • growth and development
    • metabolism
    • movement and/or irritability
    • cell support, protection, and storage mechanisms
    • capacity to transport substances in and out of the cell
  12. chromosomes
    long stands of DNA (the hereditary/genetic material) packed into discrete bodies
  13. where are the chromosomes in prokaryotes
    loose in the nucleoid region not enclosed by a nuclear membrane
  14. what are the reproduction in eukaryotes
    sexual and asexual reproduction
  15. sexual reproduction
    offspring's are produced through the union of sex cells from 2 parents (usually un eukaryotes)
  16. asexual reproduction
    • offspring's are produced through the division of a single parent cell into 2 daughter cells
    • ex)mitosis
  17. mitosis******
    a division of chromosomes used by MANY eukaryotic cells
  18. what is the reproduction in prokaryotes
    asexual reproduction through the process called binary fission
  19. binary fission
    a simple process of a cell splitting equally into 2
  20. metabolism
    the chemical and physical life process occurring in a cell
  21. protein synthesis (metabolism)
    cells make proteins using hundreds of tiny particles dispersed though out the cell called ribosomes
  22. motility
    • the ability of self propulsion of movement
    • notable sign of life, although not present in all cells
  23. what type of mobility do eukaryotic cell use
    • flagella
    • cilia
    • pseudopods
  24. what type of mobility do prokaryotic cell use
    flagella and fibril
  25. what is flagella
    whip like tails (single)
  26. what is cilia
    hair on them
  27. what is pseudopods
    • "false foot"
    • take on all types of shapes
  28. fibrils
    produce a gliding motion
  29. irritability
    • the capacity to respond to chemical, mechanical, or light stimuli
    • helps cells adapt to a changing environment and obtain nutrients
  30. what is a cells protection
    cell wall
  31. cell wall
    rigid structure that provides support and shape to most cells
  32. what eukaryotes have cell walls
    plants, microscopic algae and fungi
  33. what eukaryotes don't have cell walls
    animals, protozoa, humans
  34. what prokaryotes have cell walls
    the majority of prokaryotes (bacteria) have cell walls
  35. what is the cells transport
    cell membrane
  36. cell membrane
    • semi permeable structure in both euk and prok that allows substance (nutrients) to come into the cell and wastes to be expelled out of the cell
    • absolutely essential for cell survival
  37. what is allowed in the cell membrane
    water and nutrients
  38. what is allowed out of the cell membrane
    waste produces its creating
  39. what is not allowed in cell membranes
    • virus
    • foreign invaders
    • toxin
  40. what is not allowed out of cell membrane
    • organelles
    • cytoplasm
  41. external structure of a bacterial cell
    • appendages
    • glycocalyx
  42. cell envelopes of bacterial cell
    • cell wall
    • cell membrane
  43. internal structure of a bacterial cell
    • cytoplasm
    • ribosomes
    • nucleoid/chromosomes
    • endospores
  44. structures essential to all prokaryotic cells
    • cell wall
    • ribosomes
    • cell membrane
    • chromosomes (1 or a few)
  45. structures found in some but not all prokaryotes
    • flagella, pili, fimbriae
    • capsule, slime layer
    • endospores
  46. what are the 2 major types of appendages
    • flagella and axial filaments-those that provide motility
    • fimbriae and pili-those that provide attachment or channels
  47. flagellum******
    • singular
    • a long whip-like "tail" extending from the surface of some bacteria that allows for self-propulsion
  48. polar
    flagella attached at one or both ends
  49. what are the 3 subtype of polar
    • monotrichous
    • lophotrichous
    • amphitrichous
  50. monotrichous
    a single flagella
  51. lophotrichous
    multiple flagella emerging from one site
  52. amphitrichous
    multiple flagella come out of both ends
  53. peritrichous
    flagella dispersed randomly around surface of the cell
  54. why use the flagella
    because of chemotaxis and phototaxis
  55. chemotaxis
    the ability to detect and move in response to chemical signals
  56. positive chemotaxis
    movement of a cell towards a favorable chemical stimulus (usually a nutrient)
  57. negative chemotaxis
    movement away from a repellent (potential harmful) compound
  58. phototaxis
    movement of a cell in response to light (rather than chemical)
  59. what happens what polar flagellum rotates counterclockwise
    cells swim forward (run)
  60. what happens when polar flagellum clockwise rotates clockwise
    cell stops and changes direction (tumble)
  61. axial filament
    • type of internal flagella that are enclosed in the space between the outer sheath and the cell wall peptidoglycan-(the periplasm)
    • aka periplasmic flagella
  62. where are axial filaments seen
    usually in corkscrews-shaped bacteria called spirochetes
  63. fimbria and pili******
    • appendages that provide attachments or channels
    • surface on the surface of bacteria that helps with interactions with other cells, but DO NOT provide locomotion
  64. fimbria
    • singular of fimbriae (a fringe)
    • small bristle like fibers that tend to stick to each other and to surfaces
    • maybe the structures responsible for biofilms
  65. pilus
    • singular of pili (a hair)
    • aka sex pilus
    • an elongated rigid tubular that is used in the "mating" process between cells called conjugation which involves partial transfer of DNA from one cell to another
  66. how can you tell the difference between cilia and fimbria
    bacteria has fimbria not cilia
  67. glycocalyx****
    an outer coating developed to protect some bacterial cells in response to harsh environment conditions
  68. what are the 2 types of glycocalyx
    • slime layer
    • capsule
  69. slime layer
    • loose shield that protects the cell from dehydration and loss of nutrients
    • easily washed off
  70. capsule
    • thicker more tightly bound layer
    • not easily removed
  71. biofilm
    a compact mass of microbes that forms thick living layers on various surfaces, natural or man made
  72. what are some natural places for biofilms
    • scum in toilet or shower
    • slimy slippery rocks in a stream
    • plaque on teeth
  73. what are some man made places for biofilms
    devices inside a human body (catheters, breast implants, placemaker)
  74. how do external structures (slime layer, capsules, fimbriae) play a role in the formation of biofilm
    by allowing the microbes to aggregate and stick together