Chem: bonding

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  1. Octet rule, achieving it
    • An atom becomes more stable as its electron configuration becomes like that of a noble gas.
    • Octet rule = atoms tend to combine in such way that they have 8 e in their valence shell, giving them the same electronic configuration as that of a noble gas.

    Atoms can achieve it by gaining, loosing or sharing e
  2. Ionic bond, their properties
    • is formed between positive and negative ions.
    • Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points, they dissolve in polar solvents (such as water)
  3. Lewis electron dot diagram
    represent the valence shell of an atom
  4. Covalent bond
    • made by sharing pairs of electrons.
    • Ex. Cl2
    • Compounds can have single, double or triple covalent bonds
    • Dipoles attract each other, other dipoles, and ions, they have higher melting and boiling points than non-polar molecules
  5. Types of covalent bond
    • 1) Polar covalent bond
    • atoms share electrons unequally => electrons are being held closer to one atom than to the other (HCl)
    • electrons are held closer to the Cl than to H
    • This makes Cl side of molecule slightly positive and H side of molecule slightly positive => DIPOLE

    • 2) Non-polar covalent bond
    • when atoms share electrons equally (cl2)
  6. Dipole
    When a molecule has a polar covalent bond, and one of its sides are slightly positive and other is negative, such molecule called dipole (two poles)
  7. Polar solvents
    • solvents that are dipole
    • ex: water = have surface tension and capillary action

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Chem: bonding
2013-09-16 01:26:26

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