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Classification of a substance
- element is a substance made of one type of an atom. It cannot be broken down into anything simpler
- Compound is made of two or more atoms bonded together, C can be broken down into elements.
- Element and compound is a substance b/c their composition and properties do no vary.
Phases of matter
- 1) GAS
- attractions btw atoms are weak
- particles move in around in random matter
- it takes a shape of a container and fills its volume
- 2) Liquid
- has more attractions btw molecules
- takes the sape of a container but doen't vary in the volume
- 3) Solid
- doesn't take the shape of a container
- its particles have very little movement
Changing of state
- Melting: S => L
- Evaporation: L =>G
- Condensation: G=>L
- Freezing: L=> S
- Sublimation: S=>G or G=>S
What changes during phase change?
- The amount of heat (input or extracted) changes, but the temp remains the same.
- B/c heat is being used to change a phase, but temp remains the same
Evaporating and condensing point of water
Vapor pressure and boiling
- pressure produced by evaporated gas above a liquid.
- Vapor pressure is specific for each liquid at each temperature
- For a liquid to boil its vapor pressure must be equal to pressure on it
Boiling, vapor pressure at high altitudes
Lower barometric pressure => water boils at lower temp