Antibiotics1

Card Set Information

Author:
Neda317
ID:
235073
Filename:
Antibiotics1
Updated:
2015-02-16 00:31:19
Tags:
pharm
Folders:

Description:
mini-2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Neda317 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Mechanism of action of Antibiotics
    • 1. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • 2. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis
    • 3. Inhibition of Folic acid Synthesis
    • 4. Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
  2. Mechanism of Resistance
    • 1. B-lactamase cleavage of drugs B-lactam ring
    • 2. Production of conjugating enzymes that increase drugs clearance
    • 3. Formation of acetylating enzymes that inactivate drugs
    • 4. Methylation of base in RNA that alter drugs binding
    • 5. Production of active transport systems that push drugs out of the cell
    • 6. Formation of PABA, increase resistance to inhibition of dihydropteroate synthetase
    • 7. Increase transport systems to push drugs out Increase resistance to inhibition of topoisomerase II
  3. Antibiotics Combination
    • 1. Additive Effect: 1+1 = 2
    • 2. Synergistic Effect: 1+1 = 3
    • 3. Antagonistic Effect: 1+1 = 0
  4. MOA
    1. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    Bind to cytoplasmic-protein-binding proteins (PBPs)-> Inhibit transpeptidation -> inhibit cross-linking of bacterial cell wall
  5. what antibiotics use for
    Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • 1-Penicillins
    • 2-Cephalosporins
    • 3-Imipenem, meropenem, aztreonam
    • 4-Vancomycin: Inhibits peptidoglycan synthase binds to D-Alanine
  6. MOA
    2. of ProteInhibition in Synthesis
    • A. Interfere with the formation of initiation complex
    • B. Interfere with incorporation of next amino acid
    • C. Interfere with the formation of peptide bond
    • D. Interefere with Translocation
  7. A. Interfere with the formation of initiation complex
    drugs:
    • Aminoglycoside (30S)
    • Linezolid (50S)
  8. . Interfere with the formation of initiation complex
    Bactericidal how?
    Misread of genetic code carried by mRNA -> incorporation of wrong Amino acid
  9. . Interfere with incorporation of next amino acid
    drugs:
    • Tetracyclines (30S)
    • Dalfopristin & Quinupristin (50S)
    • streptogramins
  10. .Interfere with incorporation of next amino acid

    Bacteriostatic how?
    Inhibit the insertion of aminoacyl t-RNA into "A" site
  11. Interfere with the formation of peptide bond
    drug:
    Chloramphenicol
  12. Interfere with the formation of peptide bond
    Bacteriostatic How?
    Inhibition of peptidyltransferase
  13. Interfere with Translocation
    Drug:
    • Macrolide (50S)
    • Clindamycin (50S)
  14. Interfere with Translocation
    Bacteriostatic How?
    Inhibit translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from acceptor to donor site
  15. Inhibition of Folic acid Synthesis
    drugs?
    • Sulfonamide
    • Trimethoprim and Pyrimethamine
  16. MOA
    Sulfonamide
    Inhibits Dihydropteroate synthetase
  17. MOA
    Trimethoprim and Pyrimethamine
    Inhibits Dihydrofolate reductase
  18. .Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
    Drugs
    • Fluoroquinolones
    • Rifampin
  19. MOA
    Fluoroquinolones
    Inhibit DNA gyrase (Topoisomerase II)
  20. MOA
    Rifampin
    Inhibits DNA-dependant RNA polymerase
  21. Mechanism of action of Penicillin?
    Inhibits cell wall synthesis
  22. Mechanism of action of Macrolides
    Inhibits protein synthesis
  23. Mechanism of Resistance
    B-lactamase cleavage of drugs B-lactam ring
    Drug:
    Penicillins & Cephalosporins
  24. Mechanism of Resistance
    Productionof conjugating enzymes that increase
    drugs clearance
    Drug:
    Aminoglycosides
  25. Mechanism of Resistance
    Formation of acetylating enzymes that inactivate drugs
    Drug
    Chloramphenicol
  26. Mechanism of Resistance
    .Methylation of base in RNA that alter drugs binding
    drug:
    Macrolides
  27. Mechanism of Resistance
    drugs out of the cell
    Tetracyclines
  28. Mechanism of Resistance
    . Formation of PABA, increase resistance to inhibition of dihydropteroate synthetase
    drug:
    Sulfonamides
  29. Mechanism of Resistance
    Increasetransport systems to push drugs out Increase resistance to inhibition of topoisomerase II
    Drug:
    Fluoroquinolones
  30. Antibiotic Resistance:
    R-factor plasmid-mediated transmission Selection of resistant cells
  31. Antibiotics Combination
    Synergistic Effect: 1+1 = 3
    Penicillins + Aminoglycosides
  32. Antibiotics Combination
    . Antagonistic Effect: 1+1 = 0
    Penicillin + Tetracyclines in pneumococcal meningitis
  33. Antibiotics Combination

    clinically bacteriostatic:
    Active host defense dependent
  34. Antibiotics Combination
    clinically bacteriocidal:
    immunocompromised
  35. Gram + bacteria
    (purple)
    • Staphylococcus
    • Streptococcus
    • Clostridium
  36. Gram (-) bacteria
    (red)
    • E.coli
    • Neisseria
    • Pseudomonas
    • Bacteroids
    • Klebsiella
  37. penicillins are good against
    • gram + bacteria
    • strep and staph
    • Penicillin V K (Oral)
    • Penicillin G (IV-IM)
  38. what to use for
    penicillanase producing staph aureus
    • Penicillinase resistant penicillins
    • Oxacillin (IV)-
    • Cloxacillin (PO)-
    • Dicloxacillin (PO)-
    • Nafcillin (IV) and
    • methicillin (only used in lab) Good against staph aureus
  39. what to use for Methicillin resistant staph aureus (MRSA)
    • Vancomycin
    • Vancomycin is not a penicillin
  40. Broad spectrum antibiotics (aminopenicillins)
    Amoxacillin and Ampicillin
  41. Amoxacillin and Ampicillin
    good for?
    Good against strep and gram-ve bacteria but not staph aureus
  42. Extended spectrum penicillins (antipseudomonads)
    name and usage
    • Piperacillin- Ticarcillin- Carbenicillin
    • Good against strep and gram-ve (including pseudomonas) but not staph aureus
  43. what is B-lactamase inhibitor?
    and combined with ?
    • Clavulanate and sulbuctam
    • and combined it with broad spectrum and extended spectrum
    • to cover everything including staph aureus
  44. what drugs are Good against gram+ve and gram-ve but not MRSA
    • Amoxacillin/Clavulanate
    • Ampicillin/Sulbactam
    • Piperacillin/Tazobactam
    • Ticarcillin/Clavulunate
  45. Whichof the following antibiotics is effective against Pseudomonas?
    Ticarcillin
  46. Cautions with Antibiotics
    • 1. Always, always, always assess for Allergies
    • 2. If allergic to penicillin also allergic to cephalosporins
    • 3. If normal flora is disturbed during antibiotic therapy:
    • 4. Avoid taking oral penicillin and acidic juices or soda
    • 5. Always, always, always teach the patient about completing the full therapeutic course, even if feeling better
  47. what happens If normal flora is disturbed during antibiotic therapy:
    • Superinfection
    • Caused by microorganisms resistant to the given antibiotics
  48. Signs of superinfection:
    • black, furry overgrowth on the tongue
    • loose or foul smelling stools
    • (woman) vaginal itching or discharge
  49. Avoid taking oral penicillin and acidic juices or soda
    why?
    reduce drug absorption
  50. 5. Always, always, always teach the patient about completing the full therapeutic course, even if feeling better
    Why?
    risk for resistant organism
  51. Buzz words for Bacterial Resistance:
    • 1. Patient stop taking antibiotics
    • 2. Environmental dispersion of liquid antibiotics
    • 3. Antibiotics are prescribed to Rx viral infection
  52. 4 generation of Cephalosporins
    • 1. First generation good against gram+ve
    • 2. Second generation are good against gram-ve
    • 3. Third generation good against gram-ve and pseudomonas
    • 4. Fourth generation as good as third and good against gram+vegeneration
  53. First generation good against gram+ve
    Rx:
    • Cefazolin: Surgical prophylaxis
    • Cephalothin: renal tubular necrosis
    • No CNS entry
  54. Second generation are good against gram-ve
    RX:
    • No CNS entry except Cefuroxime
    • Cefotetan: Rx Bacteroid fragilis, Disulfiram like action
    • Cefaclor: some serum sickness
  55. Third generation good against gram-ve and pseudomonas
    character and side effect and Rx
    • Enter CNS except Cefoperazone
    • Side effects: Psudomembranous colitis
    • Ceftriaxone IV single dose for gonorrhea
    • Cefixime (PO)
    • Biliary sludge with cholecystitis like illness
    • Buzz word: Ceftriaxone & Cefoperazone
  56. Fourthgeneration as good as third generation
    Rx:
    Cefepime IV
  57. Cephalosporins Buzz word:
    • Dose adjustment in renal impairment Except:
    • Ceftriaxone & Cefoperazone
  58. If patient is Allergic to penicillins:
    Don't prescribe
    cephalosporins
  59. If gram +ve: Use
    Macrolides
  60. If Gram-ve rods: Use
    Aztreonam
  61. Cephalosporins are not effective against:
    • Chlamydia
    • Mycoplasma
    • Listeria
    • MRSA
    • Enterococci

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview