List and describe the four specialized cells in the epidermis and their functions.
- Keratinocytes:produces keratin, most abundant cell (95% of epidermis)
- Langerhans Cells: located in the stratum spinosum; less numerous than keratinocytes.They have dendritic shape.They are immunologic cells responsible for recognizing foreign antigens harmful to the body.
located at or in the basal layer. They function to produce pigment granules called melanin, the substance that gives skin its color.There are two major forms of melanin: eumelanin
(brown and black)and pheomelanin
(yellow to red).
: clear cells found in the stratum basale; connected to other skin cells by desmosomes
. Each cells is connected to an afferent nerve terminal, forming a structure known as a Merkel disk.
They are the sparsest cells in the epidermis and are found over the entire body.
They release hormones into the blood in response to neural stimuli,and function as specific, slowly adapting sensory touch receptors.(Neuroendocrine function)