Edwards Chapter 3 Vocab.txt

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Edwards Chapter 3 Vocab.txt
2013-09-16 01:08:31
Edwards Chapter Vocab

Edwards Chapter 3 Vocab
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  1. Block Grants
    Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.
  2. Categorical Grants
    Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or “categories,” of state and local spending. They come with strings attached, such as nondiscrimination provisions.
  3. Cooperative Federalism
    A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
  4. Dual Federalism
    A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
  5. Elastic Clause
    The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which authorized Congress to pass all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out the enumerated powers.
  6. Enumerated Powers
    Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution; for Congress, include the power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes
  7. Extradition
    A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
  8. Federalism
    A way of organizing a nation so that two levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between units of government.
  9. Fiscal Federalism
    The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government’s relations with state and local governments.
  10. Formula Grants
    Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations
  11. Full faith and credit
    A clause in Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states.
  12. Gibbons v. Ogden
    A landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, Section 9, of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity. The commerce clause has been the constitutional basis for much of Congress’ regulation of the economy.
  13. Implied Powers
    Powers of the federal gov. that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. The Constitution states that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution” the powers enumerated in Article 1. Any federal policies are justified on the basis of implied powers.
  14. Intergovernmental relations
    The issue of the distribution of government benefits and burdens among the generations and overtime. Affected groups include children, the working and middle classes, and the elderly, all of whom are beneficiaries of public policies.
  15. McCulloch v. Maryland
    1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments.
  16. Privileges and immunities
    A clause in Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution according citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens of other states.
  17. Project grants
    Federal grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications.
  18. Supremacy Clause
    Article VI of the constitution, which makes the constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state lawas when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
  19. Tenth Amendment
    The constitutional amendment stating that “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the sates, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.”
  20. Unitary Government
    A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most national governments today, including those of Great Britain and Japan, are unitary governments.