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Emotion is central to the quality and range of ___________________.
Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience.
Emotion sparks ____________.
Emotion sparks creativity.
Emotion exerts a powerful influence on ________.
Emotion exerts a powerful influence on reason.
Emotion contributes to ____________.
Emotion contributes to the fixation of belief
- lifestyle choice
- non-emotional - cannot hinder reasoning
A lack of emotional equilibrium underpins most human unhappiness and is a common denominator across the entire range of ____________________.
A lack of emotional equilibrium underpins most human unhappiness and is a common denominator across the entire range of mental disorders.
Every year _____________ in this country experiences a mental health issue that stands in the way of happiness.
Every year 1 in 4 in this country experiences a mental health issue that stands in the way of happiness.
More than any other species, we are __________________________ of a wealth of emotional experience.
More than any other species, we are beneficiaries and victims of a wealth of emotional experience.
Hippocrates was referred to as the ____________________
Hippocrates was referred to as the father of medicine
All disorders (both mental and physical) were caused by ________________
All disorders (both mental and physical) were caused by natural factors
4 Elements with 4 Humors in the body (Hippocrates)
- Earth with black bile
- Air with yellow bile
- Fire with blood
- Water with phlegm
- Properly balanced humors→healthy
- An imbalance among the humors resulted in illness
Galen developed a rudimentary theory of ______________.
Galen developed a rudimentary theory of personality.
4 Humors with 4 Temperments (Galen)
If one of the humors dominates, the person displays the characteristics associated with that humor
How was Aristotle's conception of emotions different?
- Emotions depend on what we believe on our evaluations
- Knowledge and what we choose to do with knowledge
Rhetoric → How do we persuade others?
- A hearer is more likely to believe a good person than a bad person
- People are persuaded when what is said stirs emotions
- People are persuaded by arguments that seem truthful
René Descartes: Emotions
- Perceptions, bodily passions, emotions
- Emotions tell us what is important in our souls
- They cannot be controlled by thinking, but can be regulated by thoughts(beliefs)
René Descartes: Mind-body interaction
- Only humans possessed a mind hat provided consciousness free choice, and rationality
- Mind: nonphysical; Body: physical
Pineal gland: Sought brain structure where animal spirits are housed (holding emotions)
Charles Darwin observed emotional expressions in _____________ species, as well as in adult and infant human.
Charles Darwin observed emotional expressions in nonhuman species, as well as in adult and infant human.
Where do our emotions come from?
- Habits (reflex-like mechanisms) that in our evolutionary or individual past had once been useful.
- Respond involuntary without cognition
Emotions link us to our past → to the past of our _____________ and to our own ____________.
Emotions link us to our past → to the past of our species and to our own infancy.
Charles Darwin argued that emotions are __________________
Charles Darwin argued that emotions are universal
James-Lange Theory of Emotions
- James reverse the traditional belief that emotion results from perception of an event
- Perception causes bodily reactions that are then experienced as emotions
- The experience of emotions is the set of changes of the autonomic nervous systemBear→Run away→"fear"
Sigmund Freud believed emotions _______________________________________
Sigmund Freud believed emotions are the core of many pathologies
- Destroyed frontal lobes
- Effected personality and social functioning
- Importance: First case to suggest that damage to specific regions of the brain might affect personality and behavior
- Initial site of damage: orbital frontal region
It affected his ability to anticipate future and plan accordingly within complex social environment, sense of responsibility toward self and others, ability to orchestrate one's survival deliberately, at the command of one's free will
- Electrical stimulation of cats and brains via electrodes
- When hypothalamus affects, cats were angry
- Emotions dependent upon programs based in the brain
- Emotions based on appraising events
- Predicting cognitive of emotion (smiling=happy, rolling eyes=annoyed)
- Similar to Aristotle
- Emotions are central to human life
- Emotion amplifies one particular drive signal
Tomkins prompted the study of ____________
- Tomkins prompted the study of facial expressions
- Changes in facial expressions are the primary amplifiers of emotions in humans
Stanley Schachter & Jerome Singer
- Subjects injected with epinephrine
- Uninformed subjects had heightened emotions
- Informed subjects had less emotions
Emotion is partitioned into 2 components
- Bodily physiological arousal (William James)
- An appraisal (evaluation/judgment) of the kind (Magda Arnold)
Dutton & Aron
- Subjects had a female approach them so sexual imagery increased
- Effect increased walking across 200 ft bridge
- TRANSFER OF AROUSAL
Emotion experienced in one situation can affect behavior, social judgements & intensity of emotions in other situations.
This effect is strongest when the person is unaware of the source of his/her original mood
- Emotional labor: work that involves constructing emotions in oneself in order to induce them in others
- 1970 → 38% of paid jobs needed emotional labor
What is an emotion?
- 1. Manifest in uniquely, recognizable and stereotyped behavioral patterns of facial expression, body language, and autonomic arousal
- 2. Less susceptible to our intentions than other psychological states
- 3. Less encapsulated than other psychological states -- have global effects on virtually all aspects of cognition
Emotions can be defined as
Multi-component responses to challenges or opportunities that are important to the individual's goals, particularly social ones.
Expressions and most autonomic changes generally last
for a few seconds
Self-Reported emotions typically are between
a few minutes and a few hours
A mood can last
- hours, days, or weeks
- Lacks intentionality
Emotional disorders last for
- weeks or months
- Determined by DSM-V criteria
- Major depressive disorder: mood disorder characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure in most activities
Personality traits can (and often do)
last a lifetime
Personality/Temperament possesses a strong __________________ at the core
Personality/Temperament possesses a strong emotional component at the core