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examining relationship between individual experiences and forces in the larger society that shape our actions, by C. Wright Milles
generalizations are only valid if they rely on evidence that can be observed directly or verified through the senses
Three Main Forces of Sociology
- How do social groups function?
- Why do individuals act a certain way?
- How does society exist?
Personalized v. Sociological approaches
- Personalized: compare to your environment
- Sociological: actually research statistic evidence
Sociology emerged because...
it was stimulated by industrial revolution and American and French revolutions
coined the term "sociology", created idea of social science
published Theory and Practice of Sociology, started social activism
proposed social equality exists, social Darwinism
- father of conflict theory (conflict between power)
- opposite of Weber
- father of sociology (first true sociological study)
- focused on functions that hold society together
- how we attach meaning to something
- opposite of Marx
- Was an activist
- Opened Hull House
Du Bois 1868-1963
argued for acceptance of African Americans
expanded on Durkeim
Merton ~ 1949
Two different social functions
What are the two different social functions?
- manifest functions - intended/recognized consequences of social function
- latent functions - unintended consequences of social functions
What are social functions?
those processes that contribute to the maintenance of society
models or framework for questions that generate and guide research
What are the three classical sociology theories?
- Symbolic Interactionist
- started by Durkheim
- society viewed as organism with parts that work together in harmony
- always fights for equilibrium
- based off Marx
- constant struggle to obtain maximum benefit
- focuses of conflict: wealth, power, prestige
Symbolic Interactionist Theory
- influenced by Weber
- reactions are based off of other reactions
- interprets meaning of signs, symbols, gestures
how individuals interpret the social world in which they participate
theories concerned with explaining specific issues or aspects of society rather than broad understanding