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What is Freud's theory of self? 3 components.
The ID, the EGO, and the SUPEREGO. ID is your instinct which is selfish, the SUPEREGO is the conscience and drive to be socially accepted and to do what you “should.” The EGO is the conscious self that tries to satisfy both the ID and SUPEREGO.
What is a key part of development for Freud? Psycho...
Psychosexual development - pleasure shifts from one body zone to another, and at each stage behavior is driven by gratification or frustration
Why did he matter? 3 points
- 1. Unconscious thoughts, feelings, motivations
- 2. Role of childhood experiences
- 3. Mental representations of self and others impact intimate relations.
What aspect of development does Freud address?
Psychosocial development- Freud believed that personality and behavior are a result of this tension between the unconscious instinct and social norms as well as a person’s early childhood experiences related to his theories of psychosexual development.
Freud: Address the relationship between development, learning, and behavior? 2 points
At each stage of development a personality is linked to the tension between inner impulses and external societal influences.
Early stages of development and childhood experiences critically important in the creation of a personality.
What is the difference between psychosocial development and psychoanalytic perspective?
Psychosocial development - Erickson - with 8 stages in life, everyone experiences a tension or crisis in personality at each chapter.
Basic Points: Psychoanalytic perspective views development as shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior
How is Erikson different from Freud? 2 points
Opposed to Freud, ego development is lifelong, not stuck in childhood experience
Greater influence of societal influences rather than the internal impulses as Freud did.
What was Erikson's main theory? Give example
Psychosocial development - Erikson - with 8 stages in life, everyone experiences a tension or crisis in personality at each chapter.
E.G., in puberty everyone has an identify versus an identity confusion. As a baby everyone has a basic trust versus mistrust.
Explain mechanistic vs. organismic
Mechanistic - people are like machines responding to environmental input. Looks at external factors that influence people. This is continuous, like going up a ramp.
Organismic - people initiate events, so humans can’t be explained by breaking us down into responses to environmental stimuli. Development is in stages, like steps.
What was John Watson?
Behaviorist, and said he could mold any infant the way he wanted.
What was B.F. Skinner? 2 points
Created operant conditioning - person learns voluntary behavior from environment (e.g. kid smiling more because parents reward it)
Reinforcement versus punishment influence and develop behavior
Explain Piaget, 2 points
Cognitive theory, not psychoanalytic or behaviorism
Before Piaget, most believed children were mini-adults, just less competent. Piaget showed that children think differently.
Describe Piaget's basic theory, 3 points
Schemas - a person’s understanding of the world in chunks
Assimilation, accommodation, equilibrium. As a child takes in new information, they create new equilibriums.
All the while, they are moving along from a child through 4 stages of development which explain how a child’s brain goes from infant to mature, reasoning, adult.
Describe Brofenbrenner, 2 points
Contextualist - development understood in its social context. People are inseparable from their environment
Person is not merely an outcome of this theory, but also shaper. But it emphasizes the larger context and to realize that people growing up in white middle class America may develop differently from someone in a different part of the world.
Describe Brofenbrenner's theory and 6 components
Bioecological theory - describes the many systems that a child interacts with and which influences development.
Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
Micro - Home life, school, neighborhood
Meso - Two microsystems interacting. E.G. home and school
Exo - Two micros interacting that don’t involve child. Parents workplace
Macro - Larger culture. E.G. nuclear family
Chrono - Larger world - e.g. war, peace, economic forces