Unit 2 cont

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phut52
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Unit 2 cont
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2013-09-16 14:40:29
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Unit 2
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  1. much of space is occupied by ground substance cells and fibers widely dispersed within to ground substances
    loose conective tissue
  2. -closely packed fibers
    -very little ground substance
    -few cells
    -dense regular and dense irregular tissue
    dense conective tissue
  3. Major types of connective tissue
    • Areolar tissue
    • reticular
    • dense regular
    • dense irregular
    • apidose
  4. -loosely organized fibers, abundant blood vessels and alot of seemingly empty space
    -underlying all epithelia forming passageway for nerves and blood vessels
    areloar tissue
  5. -mesh reticular fibers and fibrous blasts
    -forms the structural framework of such organs as the lymph nodes, spleen,thymus, and bone marrow
    reticular tissue
  6. -densly, packed, parallel collogen fibers; compressed fibroblast nuclei and open space
    -tendens and ligaments hold bones together and attach muscles to bones
    dense regular
  7. -densely packed collagen fibers running in random direction; open space; few visible cells
    -withstands stresses applied in different directions
    -deeper portion of skin; capsules around organs
    dense irregular
  8. -large empty looking cells with then margins; nucleus presses against cell membrane
    -energy storage, insulation, spacefilled as cushioning
    apidose tissue
  9. fibers of the connective tissue
    • collagen fibers or white fiber
    • reticular fibers
    • elastic fibers
  10. -tough, resist stretch yet flexible
    -tendons, ligament and deep layer of skins
    -found in cartilage and bone
    -base of gelatin, leather, glue
    collagen fibers
  11. -thin collagen fibers coated with glyco protein
    -forms framework for spleen and lymph nodes
    reticular fibers
  12. -thin branching fibers made of skin
    -stretch and recoil like rubber band
    -give skin,lungs and arteries ability to stretch and recoil
    elastic fibers
  13. cells of connective tissue
    • fibroblasts
    • macrophages
    • leukocytes or white blood cells
    • plasma cells¬†
    • mast cells
  14. -large cells that often show, slow slender, wispy branches
    -they produce fibers and ground substances that form the matrix of the tissue
    fibroblasts
  15. -large phogcytic cells that wander through the connective tissue
    -they phagocytize bactieria and dead or dying cells in the connective tissue
    -some activate the immune system when they sense foreign matter
    macrophages
  16. -travel briefely in the blood stream, then crawl out through the walls of small blood vessels and spend most of their time in connective tissue searching for bacterica to phocytize
    leukocytes or white blood cells
  17. attacks bacters
    neutrophils
  18. react against bacteria, toxins, and other foreign agents
    lyphocytes
  19. store fat
    apipocytes
  20. syntesize anti bodies to fight foreign invaders
    plasma cells
  21. secrete heparin that inhibts clotting and histamine that dilates blood vessels
    mast celss
  22. -supportive connective tissue with rubbery matrix
    -No blood vessels so diffusion must bring in nutrients and remove wastes
    -chondroblasts produce matrix once surrounded become chondrocytes
    cartilage
  23. -clear, glassy matrix, fine dispersed collagen fibers, chondrocytes is small clusters enclosed in lucanae
    -supports airway eases joint movents
    -over end of bones at movable joints; steral end or ribs; supportive material in larynx, trachea, bronchi and fatal skeleton
    hyaline cartliage
  24. -weblike mesh of elastic fibers amongst the lucuanae; 
    -provide, flexible; elastic support
    -external ear and epiglottis
    elastic cartilage
  25. catilage containing extensice paralellel collagen fibers
    resit compression and absorbs shock in some joints
    pubic syphysis, menicus and intervertebral discs
    fibro cartilage
  26. osseous tissue
    bone
  27. -filled with fibers
    -hardness due to solid matrix made of mineral salts called hydroxyapatite
    bones
  28. -delicate struts of bone
    -fills heads of long bone
    -always covered by compact bone
    spongy bone
  29. more complex arrangement
    cells and matrix surrounding veritcally oriented blood vessels in long bones
    compact bone
  30. thin layers arranged in concentric pattern around longitudinal tubers called haversian canal
    lamellae
  31. -tiny lakes in the lamellae
    - has ostecytes(bone cells)
    lacunae
  32. connect the cells in the lacuna to the central blood vessel in the osteon
    bone heals rapidly because of its good blood supply
    caliculi
  33. -a cartilage cell, a former chondroblast the has become enclosed in a lacunae in the carilage matrix
    chondrocyte
  34. runs logitudinally through long bones such as the femur
    haversian canal
  35. bone forming cell that arises from an osteogenic cell, depsits bone matrix and eventrally becomes an osteocyte
    osteoblast
  36. when oteoblast becomes surrounded by its own matrix and entrapped in a lacuna
    osteocyte
  37. -extends from neurosoma, multiple short branched processes
    -recieves signals from other cells and conduct messages to th neurosoma and the axon
    dendrites
  38. -longer than dendrites
    -sends outgoing signals to the outer celss
    -some are more than a meter long
    axon
  39. -long cylindrical, unbranched cells, with striation and multiple peripheral nucleic
    -movement, facial expression, postue, breathing, speech, swallowing and excretion
    skeletal muscle
  40. -short branced cells with stration and inter calated discs; one central nuclei per cell
    -pumping of blood
    -found in heart
    cardiac muscle
  41. -nonstrated with only one central nucleus
    -swallowing, GI funtion, labor contraction, control of airflow, errection of hairs and control of pupil
    -sheets of muscle in viscera;iris;hair follicles and sphincters
    smooth muscle

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