PHRD5015 Mechanisms of Disease - Module 3 (Cellular Responses to Stress)

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daynuhmay
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235150
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PHRD5015 Mechanisms of Disease - Module 3 (Cellular Responses to Stress)
Updated:
2013-09-16 15:38:58
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Cellular Responses Stress
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Cellular Responses to Stress
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  1. how mitochondria are a source of oxidative stress
    electrons are lost during ATP synthesis
  2. sources of ROS
    • -exogenous: pollutants, tobacco, drugs
    • -endogenous: NADPH oxidase, ETC
  3. types of ROS
    • 1) superoxide anions
    • 2) H2O2
    • 3) hydroxy/peroxy radicals
  4. forms of oxidative damage (4)
    • 1) DNA damage
    • 2) lipid peroxidation
    • 3) AA oxidation
    • 4) cofactor oxidation
  5. enzyme family that converts molecules into more water soluble forms that are more efficiently excreted
    cytochrome P450
  6. xenobiotic
    compound did not originate from the body
  7. glutathione peroxidase
    reduces ROS to nonreactive molecule
  8. glutathione reductase
    reduces glutathione and creates NADP+ from NADPH + H+
  9. catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water
    catalase
  10. coverts superoxide to water
    superoxide dismutase
  11. 3 ER stress sensors
    • 1) PERK
    • 2) ATF6
    • 3) IRE1
  12. cells that fuse such that many nuclei share 1 cytoplasm
    syncytia
  13. stem cells of muscle
    myoblasts
  14. create myoblasts
    satellite cells
  15. protein that functions as a negative regulator or muscle mass
    mystatin
  16. 3 caspase targets
    • 1) actin
    • 2) laminin
    • 3) ICAD
  17. organelle that initiates apoptotic signal
    mitochondria
  18. mitochondrial apoptotic pathway
    cyt c -> Apaf-1 aggregation -> caspase 9
  19. pro-apoptotic Bcl protein
    Bax
  20. anti-apoptotic protein
    Bcl-2
  21. binds Bax to inhibit apoptosis
    Bcl-2
  22. stress sensor doman in Bcl-2
    BH3
  23. "eat me" signal
    phosphatidyl serine (PS)
  24. activated by Ca2+ to activate apoptosis
    calcineurin
  25. promotes creation of autophagosome, negatively regulated by mTOR
    ULK complex
  26. proteins playing role in formation/fusion of autophagosomes; activated by SIRT1
    ATG proteins
  27. response in autophagy with decrease in mTOR
    increase in autophagy
  28. Fas activators
    • Fas ligand
    • TNFR1

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