Chap 27 asepsis and infection control
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What are the six components of infection?
- 1. Infectious agent
- 2. Resevoir
- 3. Portal of exit
- 4. Means of transimission
- 5. Portals of entry
- 6. Susceptible host
What are the 3 types of infectious agents?
Bacteria, virus, fungi
What is the resevoir in the infectious process?
natural habitat of the pathogen
What is the portal of exit?
The point of escape from the resevior
What is the means of transimission?
route from resevior to host
What is a vector?
nonhuman means of transmission
What is the portal of entry?
point of entry to the host
What makes a host susceptable?
weakened immune system
What are the stages of infection?
- 1. Incubation period
- 2. Prodromal stage
- 3. Full Stage of illness
- 4. Convalescent period
What is the incubation period?
interval between the pathogen's invasion and the appearance of symptoms.
What is the prodromal stage?
- Early, vague signs and symptoms of the disease.
- Most infectious stage.
What is the full stage of illness?
The presence of specific signs and symptoms.
What is the convelescent period?
What are the cardinal signs of the inflammation response?
redness, heat, pain, swelling and loss of function.
What is the vascualr response to infection?
- small vessels constrict
- vasodilation of arterioles and venules
- (increased blood flow)
- Histamine released at the site
What is the cellular reaction to infection?
- Leukocytes released at the site
- exudite released from the site
Define serous fluid?
Define sanguinous fluid.
contains red blood cells
Define purulent fluid.
What is an antigen?
the foreign material
What is an antibody?
the bodies response to an antigen
What is the humoral response to infection?
What is the normal range for leukocyte count?
5000 - 10000/mm3
What is the normal percentage of neutrophils?
When are neutrophil counts increased?
- acute infections that produce pus
- increased in response to stress
- increase risk of bacterial infections if decreased
What are the normal precentages of lymphocytes?
When are lymphocyte levels increased?
Chronic bacterial and viral infections
What are the normal percentages of monocytes?
When are monocyte levels increased?
- severe infections
- functions as a scavenger or phagocyte
What are the normal percentages of eosinophils?
When are eosinophil levels increased?
allergic responses or parasitic infections
What are normal percentages of basophils?
When are basophil levels increased?
- they aren't
- usually unaffected by infection.
What is medical asepsis?
- clean technique
- reduces the number and transfer of pathogens
What is surgical asepsis?
- sterile technique.
- objects and areas free of microorganisms
What is a nosocomial infection?
hospital acquired infection
What is an exogenous infection?
infection acquired by an outside source
What is an endogenous infection?
Acquired from microbial life harbored within the person
What is an iatrogenic infection?
infection resulting from a treatment or diagnostic procedure.
What is the difference between disinfection and sterilization??
sterilization destroys spores, disinfection doesn't
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