A&P Chapter 4
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What are the four types of tissues?
connective, muscle, nervous, epithelial
What is the one major function of each of these tissues?
- epithelial - covering
- connective - support
- muscle - movement
- nervous - support
What dermal layer(s) of the newly forming fetus do the four tissues come from?
- endoderm (epithelial)
- mesoderm (connective and muscle)
- ectoderm (nervous)
There are some main characteristics of epithelia?
- -basement membrane
- -closely packed cells
- -no blood
The classification scheme developed for categorizing epithelia are based on what two criteria?
- 1. layering (simple or stratified)
- 2. shape (cuboidal, columnar, squamous)
What is the “apical” surface?
The surface facing the outside environment; it names the stratified surface
The basement membrane that supports or underlies epithelia is made of two sublayers. What are they and what tissue cells are responsible for their generation?
basal lamina (epithelial) and reticular lamina (connective)
There are 4 types/classifications of simple epithelia. What are they? What are the main functions of simple epithelia?
What are the 4 types/classifications of stratified epithelia? What is the most common variety?
- -stratified squamous
- -stratified cuboidal
- -stratified columnar
2 types of glandular epithelia
ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into blood
glands that have ducts, secrete into a body cavity
the name of a sweat gland
gland that release sebum (oil)
What is unique about a holocrine gland?
the entire cell disintegrates to release the substance
What are the four main types of Connective Tissue (CT)?
- -CT proper
What are the subclasses of CTP?
What are the subclasses of cartilage?
What are the subclasses of bone?
What are the main functions of connective tissues?
- -binding (bone)
- -support (bone)
- -protection (bone)
- -insulation (fat)
- -transportation (blood)
What are their common characteristics of connective tissues?
- -arise from mesenchyme
- -can be vascularized and avascular
- -extracellular matrix that separates tissue of bone
The CT that lack blood.
The 4 cellular descendants of CT and which CT arise from them?
- -hematopoetic stem cell
Suffixes of CT and what do they mean?
- -blast = make new tissue
- -cyte = maintain tissue
- -clast = break down tissue
What are the three main fiber types found in CT?
- -collagen (rope, strong)
- -reticular (mix b/w collagen and elastin)
- -elastin (stretches and goes back to original shape)
What is a main difference between dense CT proper and cartilage?
no blood flow in cartilage
What are lacunae?
Small cavities in bone or cartilage (firm matrix) occupied by cells.
Another name for RBC? Do they have nuclei?
Another name for WBC? Do they have nuclei?
What are 3 types of covering membranes? How are they similar? Different?
- 1. cutaneous (skin)
- 2. mucous (line body cavities; exposed to outside)
- 3. serous (double layer)
Nervous tissue is composed of two cell types. What are they?
- -supporting (glial) cells
Of the three types of muscle tissue, which is (are) “voluntarily” controlled?
Of the three types of muscle tissue, which is (are) “striated?”
Of the three types of muscle cells, which have only one nucleus?
The receptive regions of a neuron.
The main center and receptive region of the neuron.
One axon but many axon terminals. (not a ?)
One axon but many axon terminals.
name for supporting cells
What is the impulse generating and conductive region of neuron?
____ cells stand line up end to end at the axon of the neuron.
The sheath of a Schwann cell.
An “organ” has discrete boundaries and is composed of at least ____ (#) tissue types.
Name at least 5 major regions of a somatic motor neuron.
- -cell body
- -Schwann cell
Which of the three muscle tissue types is/are striated?
cardiac & skeletal
Tissue can grow in several ways. When cells grow in size this is termed
_______________ and when tissues grow by cell mitosis this is called
The term used for cells that decrease in size due to lack of use.
When cells die due to a “program” in the cell’s DNA this is termed ______________.
However, when cells die due to pathology (disease) this is termed _________________.
Tissue repairs itself two ways which are by __________________ and ______________.
3 steps of tissue repair:
- 1. inflammation
- 2. organization
- 3. regeneration (fibrosis)
Development of new blood vessels.
What cells produce mucin?
What substances combine to form mucus?
Mucin and water
Which step in tissue repair restores the blood supply?
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