A&P Chapter 4

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stef1208
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23516
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A&P Chapter 4
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2010-06-14 16:50:37
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anatomy physiology
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A&P Chapter 4
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  1. What are the four types of tissues?
    connective, muscle, nervous, epithelial
  2. What is the one major function of each of these tissues?
    • epithelial - covering
    • connective - support
    • muscle - movement
    • nervous - support
  3. What dermal layer(s) of the newly forming fetus do the four tissues come from?
    • endoderm (epithelial)
    • mesoderm (connective and muscle)
    • ectoderm (nervous)
  4. There are some main characteristics of epithelia?
    • -polarity
    • -basement membrane
    • -closely packed cells
    • -no blood
    • -regeneration
  5. The classification scheme developed for categorizing epithelia are based on what two criteria?
    • 1. layering (simple or stratified)
    • 2. shape (cuboidal, columnar, squamous)
  6. What is the “apical” surface?
    The surface facing the outside environment; it names the stratified surface
  7. The basement membrane that supports or underlies epithelia is made of two sublayers. What are they and what tissue cells are responsible for their generation?
    basal lamina (epithelial) and reticular lamina (connective)
  8. There are 4 types/classifications of simple epithelia. What are they? What are the main functions of simple epithelia?
    • -squamous
    • -cuboidal
    • -columnar
    • -pseudostratified
  9. What are the 4 types/classifications of stratified epithelia? What is the most common variety?
    • -stratified squamous
    • -stratified cuboidal
    • -stratified columnar
    • -transitional
  10. 2 types of glandular epithelia
    • endocrine
    • exocrine
  11. ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into blood
    endocrine
  12. glands that have ducts, secrete into a body cavity
    exocrine
  13. the name of a sweat gland
    merocrine gland
  14. gland that release sebum (oil)
    holocrine
  15. What is unique about a holocrine gland?
    the entire cell disintegrates to release the substance
  16. What are the four main types of Connective Tissue (CT)?
    • -blood
    • -bone
    • -CT proper
    • -cartilage
  17. What are the subclasses of CTP?
    • -dense
    • -loose
  18. What are the subclasses of cartilage?
    • -hyaline
    • -elastic
    • -fibrocartilage
  19. What are the subclasses of bone?
    • -compact
    • -spongy
  20. What are the main functions of connective tissues?
    • -binding (bone)
    • -support (bone)
    • -protection (bone)
    • -insulation (fat)
    • -transportation (blood)
  21. What are their common characteristics of connective tissues?
    • -arise from mesenchyme
    • -can be vascularized and avascular
    • -extracellular matrix that separates tissue of bone
  22. The CT that lack blood.
    • -cartilage
    • -tendon
    • -ligaments
  23. The 4 cellular descendants of CT and which CT arise from them?
    • -fibroblast
    • -chondroblast
    • -osteoblast
    • -hematopoetic stem cell
  24. Suffixes of CT and what do they mean?
    • -blast = make new tissue
    • -cyte = maintain tissue
    • -clast = break down tissue
  25. What are the three main fiber types found in CT?
    • -collagen (rope, strong)
    • -reticular (mix b/w collagen and elastin)
    • -elastin (stretches and goes back to original shape)
  26. What is a main difference between dense CT proper and cartilage?
    no blood flow in cartilage
  27. What are lacunae?
    Small cavities in bone or cartilage (firm matrix) occupied by cells.
  28. Another name for RBC? Do they have nuclei?
    erythrocytes; no
  29. Another name for WBC? Do they have nuclei?
    leukocytes; yes
  30. What are 3 types of covering membranes? How are they similar? Different?
    • 1. cutaneous (skin)
    • 2. mucous (line body cavities; exposed to outside)
    • 3. serous (double layer)
  31. Nervous tissue is composed of two cell types. What are they?
    • -neurons
    • -supporting (glial) cells
  32. Of the three types of muscle tissue, which is (are) “voluntarily” controlled?
    skeletal
  33. Of the three types of muscle tissue, which is (are) “striated?”
    • -skeletal
    • -cardiac
  34. Of the three types of muscle cells, which have only one nucleus?
    smooth
  35. The receptive regions of a neuron.
    Dendrites.
  36. The main center and receptive region of the neuron.
    cell body
  37. One axon but many axon terminals. (not a ?)
    One axon but many axon terminals.
  38. name for supporting cells
    neuroglia
  39. What is the impulse generating and conductive region of neuron?
    Axon
  40. ____ cells stand line up end to end at the axon of the neuron.
    Schwann
  41. The sheath of a Schwann cell.
    Neurilemma
  42. An “organ” has discrete boundaries and is composed of at least ____ (#) tissue types.
    2
  43. Name at least 5 major regions of a somatic motor neuron.
    • -cell body
    • -dendrites
    • -axon
    • -terminal
    • -Schwann cell
  44. Which of the three muscle tissue types is/are striated?
    cardiac & skeletal
  45. Tissue can grow in several ways. When cells grow in size this is termed
    _______________ and when tissues grow by cell mitosis this is called
    __________________.
    hypertrophy; hyperplasia
  46. The term used for cells that decrease in size due to lack of use.
    atrophy
  47. When cells die due to a “program” in the cell’s DNA this is termed ______________.
    apoptosis
  48. However, when cells die due to pathology (disease) this is termed _________________.
    Necrosis
  49. Tissue repairs itself two ways which are by __________________ and ______________.
    • -regeneration
    • -fibrosis
  50. 3 steps of tissue repair:
    • 1. inflammation
    • 2. organization
    • 3. regeneration (fibrosis)
  51. Development of new blood vessels.
    Angiogenesis
  52. What cells produce mucin?
    Goblet cells
  53. What substances combine to form mucus?
    Mucin and water
  54. Which step in tissue repair restores the blood supply?
    Organization

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