Antibiotics2

Card Set Information

Author:
Neda317
ID:
235188
Filename:
Antibiotics2
Updated:
2013-09-19 19:11:12
Tags:
pharm
Folders:

Description:
mini-2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Neda317 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. New Beta-lactams
    • 1.Monobactam
    • 2.Carbapenem
  2. Monobactam
    buzz word: Aztreonam
    MOA
    Binds to PBP's 1a&3 and inhibits transpeptidation
  3. Monobactam/ Aztreonam
    given
    No cross sensitivity to penicillins.
    Given IV against gram-ve
  4. Monobactam/ Aztreonam
    No cross sensitivity to
    penicillins.
  5. Monobactam/ Aztreonam
    Synergistic to
    aminoglycosides
  6. Carbapenem
    Buzz word: RX?
    • Imipenem/cilastatin
    • Meropenem
  7. Imipenem/cilastatin
    MOA
    Imipenem is rapidly metabolized  by renal dipeptidase
  8. cilastatin
    MOA
    Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of dipeptidase ->Increase duration of action of Imipenem
  9. Meropenem
    indications
    Rx of serious infections
  10. what are resistant to B-lactamase
    Carbapenem
  11. Carbapenem indications
    Given IV against Gram+ve, Gram-ve, and anaerobes
  12. carbapenem
    side effect
    Seizure with renal dysfunction (Imipenem)
  13. It is not penicillin or cephalosporins
    Vancomycin
  14. Vancomycin
    MOA
    • Against Gram+ve only
    • It inhibits bacterial cell wall
    • Inhibits elongation of Peptidoglycan chains
    • It is bactericidal
  15. Vancomycin
    IV effective against
    MRSA
  16. Vancomycin
    Oral effective against
    clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous colitis)
  17. Vancomycin is not effective against
    gram-ve
  18. Adverse effects of Vancomycin
    • 1."Red man syndrome"
    • 2. Ototoxicity
    • 3. Hypersensitivity
    • 4. Nephrotoxicity
  19. what is Red man syndrome
    and why?
    • chills - fever - rash - red face and neck
    • why? histamine release
  20. Vancomycin resistance
    • VRSA (Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
    • VRE(Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci)
  21. Macrolides
    RX
    • Erythromycin
    • Azithromycin
    • Clarithromycin
  22. Macrolides
    Drug of choice:
    • Community acquired pneumonia
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  23. Macrolides
    Not effective against
    MRSA
  24. Erythromycin estolate
    cause and MOA
    • cholestatic jaundice
    • Binds to motilin receptors -> Diarrhea
    • reversible ototoxicity
  25. Erythromycin:
    good for
    Good against staph- strep - Mycoplasma and Legionella
  26. Erythromycin
    side effect
    • GIproblems (diarrhea and vomiting)
    • High dose (prolonged QT interval)
  27. Azithromycin
    • As Good as erythromycin + Chlamydial urethritis
    • Less side effects than erythromycin
  28. Clarithromycin:
    good for
    • As good as Erythromycin + H. Influenza and H. pylori
    • :Good against MAC
    • Mycobacterium avium complex in AIDS patient
  29. Clarithromycin:
    MOA
    It inhibits cytochrome P450
  30. Antibiotic safe in Pregnancy?
    Erythromycin
  31. New class related to Macrolides
    Ketolides
    • Telithromycin
    • Similar to Azithromycin
  32. Telithromycin
    side effect
    • Prolonged QT interval
    • Inhibits cytochrome P450
  33. Anaerobic infections Bacteroids

    Oral infections
    Clindamycin
  34. Clindamycin risk for
    AAPMC= Antibiotic-Associated PseudoMembranous Colitis
  35. Anaerobic infections Bacteroids
    Intraabdominal
    Metronidazole
  36. Metronidazole
    drug of choice
    protozoa
    • Giardia Lamblia
    • Trichomonas vaginalis
    • Entamoeba histolytica
  37. Metronidazole drug of choice
    bacteria
    • AAPMC
    • Bacteroids Fragilis
    • G. Vaginalis
  38. Metronidazole
    Adverse Effects:
    • Furry tongue, glossitis
    • Peripheral neuropathy
    • Disulfiram like action
  39. Disulfiram drug action drugs:
    • Metronidazole
    • Cefamandole
    • Cefoperazone
    • Cefotetan
    • Griseofulvin
  40. name all Tetracyclines
    Tetracycline - Doxycycline- Minocycline- Demeclocycline
  41. Tetracyclines good for
    Good for chlamydia, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma, Brucella Yersinia and Vibrio cholera, lime disease, Used in patients allergic to penicillin
  42. Tetracyclines cautions
    and what is the exception
    Dairy product should be avoided with Tetracycline, bc reduce absorption (Chelators)

    Except doxycycline & Minocycline
  43. Demeclocycline MOA and RX for:
    inhibits ADH and used to Rx SIADH
  44. Doxycycline MOA and Rx for:
    penetrates the prostate and used in Prostatitis
  45. tetracyclines
    Adverse reactions and why?
    • 1. Contraindicated in children younger than 8y/old bc of teeth stain
    • 2. Use sunscreen and protective clothing when outdoors is advised why? Phototoxicity
    • 3. Out dated Tetracycline: Fanconi like syndrome(renal failure)
    • 4. Hepatotoxicity: more in pregnant women
    • 5. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Demeclocycline)
    • 6. Vestibular Ototoxicity (Minocycline)
  46. All tetracyclines, except which one require dose adjustment in renal impairment?
    doxycycline
  47. name Fluoroquinolones
    • Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin
    • Enoxacin, Trovafloxacin
  48. Analogues of Nalidixic acid
    drug of choice ?
    Anthrax
  49. Anthrax 2nd choice:
    Penicillins or tetracyclines
  50. Penicillins or tetracyclines good against
    gram -ve sepsis (PO)
  51. Single dose for gonorrhea
    Ciprofloxacin & Ofloxacin
  52. drug of choice for chlamydia
    Ofloxacin
  53. Fluoroquinolones
    contraindication
    • pregnancy and
    • Careful <18y/old why? inhibit chondrocytes
  54. drug of choice for UTI
    Fluoroquinolones
  55. name Aminoglycosides
    • Gentamycin - Tobramycin - Paromomycin
    • Amikacin- Neomycin- Kanamycin- Streptomycin
  56. Aminoglycosides good for
    • gram-veinfections
    • Active transport by O2 dependant system
  57. Aminoglycosides
    Used in combination:
    • 1.Endometritis: Triple antibiotics
    •     Gentamycin + Ampicillin + Metronidazole
    • 2.Enterococcus infection:
    •     Synergistic with ampicillin
    • 3.Pseudomonal infection
    •     Synergistic with Extended spectrum penicillin
  58. Aminoglycosides
    Adverse reactions side effects:
    • 1. Ototoxicity (2%) (Auditory: Irreversible (cochlear), high pitch 1st, Vestibular: Reversible)
    • 2. Nephrotoxicity: (7%)(Proteinuria, hypokalemia, and acute tubular necrosis)
    • 3. Neuromuscular blockade (Decrease prejunctional release of Acetylcholine)
  59. All aminoglycosides require dose adjustement in -------------
    renal failure
  60. Aminoglycosides
    Drug interactions:
    • 1. Enhanced Ototoxicity: Furosemide, ethacrynic acid
    • 2. Enhanced Nephrotoxicity: Amphotericin B, Vancomycin, Cisplatin, cyclosporin
  61. Used in Rx of Gonorrhea
    Spectinomycin and is not an aminoglycoside
  62. Spectinomycin MOA
    • inhibits protein synthesis by binding to (30S)
    • Doesn't cause mesreading of the genetic code
  63. Sulfonamides
    • 1.Sulfisoxazole
    • 2.Sulfasalazine
    • 3.Sulfacetamide
    • 4. Silver sulfadiazine
    • 5.Sulfadiazine & Pyrimethamine
    • 6.Trimethoprin/Sulfamethoxazole (TSZ):
  64. Sulfisoxazole: Rx of
    UTI & Nocardial infection
  65. Sulfasalazine Rx of
    Ulcerative colitis
  66. Sulfacetamide: Rx of
    Trachoma(Topical)
  67. Silversulfadiazine:Rx of
    burns (Topical)
  68. Sulfadiazine& Pyrimethamine Rx of
    Toxoplasmosis
  69. Trimethoprin/Sulfamethoxazole (TSZ): Rx of
    PCP (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia )
  70. Sulfonamides
    Side effects:
    • 1.Hypersensitivity (Rashto Steven Johnson Syndrome)
    • 2. Hemolysis in G6PD deficiency
    • 3. Photosensitivity
    • 4. Crystalluria
  71. Sulfonamides
    Contraindication:
    • 3rd trimester of pregnancy bc
    • cross BBB -->  Kernicterus
  72. Sulfonamides
    Drug interactions:
    • Increase warfarin activity
    • Increase phenytoin activity
  73. Trimethorprin/Sulfamethoxazole (TMZ-SMX)
    Co-Trimoxazole
    Drug of choice and the 2nd choice
    • Prophylaxis & Rx of PCP
    • 2nd choice: Rx of Salmonella, Chancroid, MRSA
  74. Trimethorprin/Sulfamethoxazole (TMZ-SMX)
    Adverse effects
    • Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia
    • GI distress in AIDS patients
    • Hemolysis
  75. Urinary Tract Antiseptics
    Methenamine, mandelate and Nitrofurantoin
  76. Urinary Tract Anelgesics
    Phenazopyridine
  77. Phenazopyridine
    reaction
    Produce orange to red urine that may stain clothing
  78. Broad spectrum antibacterial
    Chloramphenicol
  79. Chloramphenicol
    side effect
    • Aplastic anemia
    • Gray baby syndrome
  80. Rx used for
    Methecillin-Resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA)
    Vancomycin
  81. Rx used for
    Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
    and
    Vancomycin Resistant Staph Aureus
    • Linezolid
    • Quinupristin/Dalfopristin
    • Daptomycin
    • Tigecycline
    • ceftaroline

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview