Pharmacology Key Words terms

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Pharmacology Key Words terms
2013-09-16 19:38:02
vocabulary bolded terms pharmacology

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  1. adverse effect
    general term for undesirable and potentially harmful drug effect.
  2. agonist
    drug that binds to a receptor and activates a physiologic response or drug action
  3. antagonist
    drug that binds to a receptor and interferes with other drugs or substances from producing a drug effect
  4. chemical name
    name that defines the chemical composition of a drug
  5. contraindications
    situations or conditions when a certain drug should not be administered
  6. controlled substance
    drug that has the potential for abuse and thus is regulated by law
  7. dose
    a measurement of the amount of drug that is administered
  8. drug
    chemical substance that produces a change in body function
  9. drug indications
    intended or indcated uses for any drug
  10. ED50 effective dose 50
    dose that will produce an effect that is half of the maximal response
  11. generic name
    nonproprietary name of the drug
  12. LD50
    letahl dose 50, or dose that will kill 50 percent of the laboratory animals tested.
  13. mechanism of action
    explanation of how a drug produces its effects.
  14. nonprescription, over-the-counter (OTC) drug
    drug that can be purcharsed without the services of a physician
  15. pharmacology
    study of drugs
  16. potency
    measure of the strength, or concencentration , of a drug required to produce a specific effect
  17. prescription drug
    drug for which dispensiing requires a written or phone order that can be issued by or under the direction of a licensed physician
  18. receptor
    specific cellular structure that a drug binds to and that produces a physiologic effect
  19. side effect
    drug effect other than the therapeutic effect that is usually undesirable but not harmful
  20. site of action
    location within the body where a drug exerts its therapeutic effect, often a specific drug receptor
  21. therapeutic effect
    desired drug effect to alleviate some condition or symptom of disease
  22. therapeutic index (TI)
    ratio of the LD50 to the ED50 in animal studies
  23. toxic effect
    undesirable drug effect that implies drug poisoning; can be harmful or life-threatening
  24. trade name
    patented proprietary name of a drug sold by a specific drug manufacturer; also referred to as the brand name
  25. bioavailability
    percentage of drug dosage that is absorbed
  26. drug absorption
    entrance of a drug into the bloodstream from its site of administration
  27. drug addiction
    condition of drug abuse and drug dependence that is characterized by compulsive drug behavior
  28. drug dependence
    condition of reliance on the use of a particular drug, characterized as physical and/or psychological dependence
  29. drug distribution
    passage of a drug from the blood to teh tissues and organs of the body
  30. drug excretion
    elimination of the drug from the body
  31. drug metabolism
    the enzymatic biotransformation of a drug into metabolites
  32. drug microsomal metabolizing system (DMMS)
    group of enzymes located primarily in the liver that function to metabolize (biotransformation) drugs
  33. drug tolerance
    decreased drug effect occurring after repeated drug administration
  34. enzyme induction
    increase in the amount of drug-metabolizing enzymes after repeated administration of certain drugs
  35. enzyme inhibition
    inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by certain drugs
  36. first pass metabolism
    drug metabolism that occurs in the intestines and liver during oral absorption of drugs into the systemic circulation
  37. half-life
    time required for the body to reduce the amount of drug in the plasma by one-half
  38. individual variation
    difference in the effects of drugs and drug dosages from one person to another
  39. intramuscular (IM) injection
    route of drug administration; drug is injected into gluteal or deltoid muscles
  40. intravenous (IV) injection
    route of drug administration; drug is injected directly into a vein
  41. loading dose
    initial drug dose administered to rapidly achieve therapeutic drug concentrations
  42. maintenance dose
    dose administered to maintain drug blood levels in the therapeutic range
  43. oral administration
    route of drug administration by way of the mouth through swallowing
  44. parenteral administration
    route of drug administration that does not involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
  45. pharmacokinetics
    describes the processes of drug absorption, drug distribution, drug metabolism, and drug excretion
  46. acetylcholine (AcHG)
    neurotransmitter of parasympathetic (cholinergic) nerves; stimulates the cholinergic receptor
  47. adrenergic receptor
    receptor located on internal organs that responds to norepinephrine and epinephrine
  48. afferent nerve
    transmits sensory information from peripheral organs to the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system)
  49. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    system of nerves that innervate smooth and cardiac muscle (involuntary) of the internal organs and glands
  50. cholinergic (muscarinic) receptor
    receptor located on internal organs and glands that responds to acetylcholine
  51. efferent nerve
    carries the appropriate motor response from the brain and spinal cord to the peripheral organs
  52. epinephrine (EPI)
    hormone from adrenal medulla that stimulates adrenergic receptors, especially during stress
  53. fight or flight reaction
    response of the body to intense stress; caused by activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS
  54. homeostasis
    normal state of balance among the body's internal organs
  55. neurotransmitter
    substance that stimulates internal organs to produce characteristic changes associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
  56. norepinephrine (NE)
    neurotransmitter of sympathetic (adrenergic) nerves that stimulates the adrenergic receptors
  57. parasympathetic
    refers to nerves of the ANS that originate in the brain and sacral portion of the spinal cord; they are active when the body is at rest or trying to restore body energy and function
  58. sympathetic
    refers to nerves of the ANS that originate form the thorocolumbar portion of the spinal cord; they are active when the body is under stress or when it is exerting energy
  59. adrenergic neuronal blocker
    drug that acts at the neuronal nerve endings to reduce the formation or release of NE
  60. alpha-adrenergic drug
    drug that stimulates the alpha adrenergic receptors
  61. alpha-1 adrenergic blocker
    drug that blocks the alpha-1 effects of NE and EPI
  62. alpha-1 adrenergic receptor
    receptor located on smooth muscle that reduces the release of NE
  63. beta-1 adrenergic receptor
    receptor located on the heart that increases heart rate and force of contraction
  64. beta-2 adrenergic receptor
    receptor located on smooth muscle that relaxes smooth muscle when stimulated
  65. catecholamine
    refers to norepinephrine, epinephrine, and other sympathomimetic compounds that possess the catechol structure
  66. false transmitter
    substance formed in nerve endings that mimics and interferes with the action of the normal neurotransmitter
  67. nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker
    drug that blocks both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors
  68. nonselective beta-adrenergic drug
    drug that stimulates both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors
  69. selective beta-1 adrenergic blocker
    drug that blocks only beta-1 receptors
  70. selective beta-2 adrenergic drug
    drug that stimulates only beta 2 receptors at therapeutic doses
  71. sympatholytics
    refers to the action of an adrenergic blocking drug or an action that decreases sympathetic activity
  72. sympathomimetic
    refers to the action of an adrenergic drug or an action that increases sympathetic activity
  73. acteylcholinesterase
    an enzyme that inactivates acteylcholine
  74. anticholinergic
    refers to drugs or effects that reduce the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
  75. cholinergic
    refers to the nerves and receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system; also refers to the drugs that stimulate this system
  76. muscarinic receptor
    an older but more specific term for the cholinergic receptor on smooth and cardiac muscle
  77. nicotinic-muscle (Nm) receptor
    cholinergic receptor located at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle
  78. nicotinic-neural (Nn) receptor
    cholinergic receptor located on both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
  79. parasympatholytics
    refers to drugs (anticholinergic) that decreases activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
  80. parasympathomimetic
    refers to drugs (cholinergic) that mimic stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system