Animal Reproduction and Development

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Animal Reproduction and Development
2013-09-16 20:29:34
Biology GRE

Biology GRE
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  1. Three main ways of reporduction
    • Meiotic Cell division
    • Asexual Reproduction
    • Sexual Reproduction
  2. Binary Fission
    • Asexual
    • Cell splits in two
    • Both Cells are genetically identical
  3. Budding
    • Asexual
    • Binary parent replicates and daughter cell buds off parent
    • These cells can either become independent of part of a colony
    • Daughter is smaller than parent, does not directly divide in two halves like binary fission
  4. Gemmules
    When buds form internally and are released in masse
  5. Fragmentation
    • ex: flatworms, Echinoderms (starfish)
    • Body breaks into fragments and each develops into another organism via regeneration
  6. Homeotic Genes
    Genes involved with regeneration
  7. Parthenogenesis
    • Unfertilized egg develops into adult without fertilization
    • Haploid offspring 
    • Most can reproduce asexually or sexually
  8. Sporulation
    Results in offspring from one parent but spores can also sexually mix
  9. Spore
    Reproductive cell held within a hardened coating so that they can survive harsh conditions
  10. Advantages of asexually reproduction and Sexual
    • Asexual:Rapid proliferation of successful genotypes
    • BUT needs stable environment where no a great deal of natural selection
    • Sexual: Allows shuffling of alleles, better in less stable environments
  11. Meiosis 1
    Two intermediate daughter cells, similar to mitosis but a crossing over at prophase, in metaphase they line up in homo pairs and not single file
  12. Meiosis II
    Involves the separation of sister chromatids , similar to mitosis, results in four cells (two from meiosis one both split)
  13. Prophase I
    Two sister Chromatids in homologous pairs (XX)
  14. Synapsis
    • Homologous pairs combine by crossing over at ends (combine across pairs not within a X)
    • Increases genetic recombination
    • *Sister chromatids no longer identical
  15. Metaphase I
    • Homologous pairs align at equatorial plate
    • Attach kinteochores
  16. Anaphase I
    • Homo pairs separate (disjunction)
    • Accounts for Medelian law of independant assortment
  17. Telophase I
    • Nuclear membrane forms around new nucleus a
    • Cell divides via cytokinesis
    • Each cell is diploid
  18. Prophase II
    Centrioles migrate to opposite poles and spindle fibers form
  19. Metaphase II
    Sister chromatids (X) line up at plate single file
  20. Anaphase II
    Sister chromatids are pulled apart as kintechore fibers shorten
  21. Teleophase II
    • Nuclear membrane forms and cell splits via cytokinesis
    • Results in four haploid daughter cells
    • In females only one survives
    • In males all survive
  22. Meiosis VS Mitosis
    • Metaphase I, in meiosis line up as homo pairs no single file 
    • Crossing over
  23. Hermaphroditic
    • Male and Female organs
    • Usually sessile organisms
    • Still need another mate, but can use any mate that comes by, and can mate twice with any mate that comes by 
    • Two hermaphrodites allow for two matches to mate with
  24. External Fertilization
    • Rarely invest much in parental care, growth of development
    • Must be moist environment
  25. Internal Fertilization
    • Fewer zygotes
    • Carried by parent for period of time
  26. Amniote Egg
    • Internally fertilized, parent can guard egg after laying it. 
    • Baby is nourished with water and nutrients from the amniote sac inside the egg
  27. Gonads
    • Reproductive organs
    • Male-Teste
    • Two functional components: Semiferous tubules and interstitial cell
  28. Semiferous Tubules
    Produce sperm
  29. Follicles
    • Multi layered sac of cells that contains and nourishes ovum 
    • Produce estrogen
  30. Spermatogensis
    • Sperm production 
    • diploid cells called spermatogenia
  31. Corona Radita
    Thick outside of egg penetrated by enzymes on sperm head
  32. Monozygotic Twins
    One Zygote that is cleaved
  33. Dizygotic Twins
    Two eggs are fertilized, siblings are just normal siblings, do not share 100% of DNA
  34. Menstrual Cycles
    To prepare the uterus to receive fertilized ovum
  35. Estrous Cycle
    • "in Heat" 
    • if pregnant, body does not shed uterine lining and behavioral changes occur
  36. GnRH
    • Gonadotropin releasing hormone
    • Released by hypothalamus 
    • Simulates pituitary to released LH, and FSH
  37. FSH
    • Follicule stimulating hormone
    • Pituitary
    • Stimulates growth and development of follicile
  38. LH
    • Luteinizing hormone
    • Pituitary
    • Stimulates ovulation and corpus luteum to form
  39. Estrogen
    • Released by Ovaries/adrenal gland 
    • Signals uterine lining to thicken
    • Female sex characteristics regulation of brain hormone
  40. Progesterone
    • Produced by ovaries
    • Endometrium maintenance, regulation of brain hormones
  41. Ovulation
    Release of egg
  42. Corpus Lutem
    Remaining follicle after period
  43. Ovarian Cycle
    Maturation of egg and formation of corpus luteum
  44. Uterine cycle
    Maintenance and dissolution of uterine lining
  45. Clevage
    • Series of rapid mitotic divisons 
    • Increases total cell count but total volume remains constant, cells get smaller
    • Increases SA:V ratio, better for gas exchange
  46. Interminate Clevage
    • Cells that maintain ability to develop into complete organism
    • Identical Twins
  47. Determinate Cleavage
    Cells who future differentiation are determined by early developmental stage
  48. Morula
    Solid Ball of embryonic cells
  49. Blastulation
    Morula develops fluid filled center called blastoceol
  50. Blastula
    • Four days after blastocel, two cell groups develop
    • Inner cell mass and trophoblast
  51. Innercell mass and Trophoblast
    • Innercell mass is mass that enters blastceol
    • Trophoblast are cells that go in a ring around blastula
  52. Endometrium
    Mucosal lining of uterus
  53. Gastrula
    • Once implanted, cell migrates ad transforms the single cell layer of the blastula into three germ layers 
    • Endoderm
    • Ectoderm
    • Mesoderm
  54. Ectoderm
    • Outer cell layer
    • Integument system, lens of eye and nervous system
  55. Endoderm
    • Innercell layer
    • Epithelial linnnig of digestive and respiratory tracts
  56. Archenteron
    Newly formed cavity of two layers gastrula that later becomes the gut
  57. Blastopore
    Opening of archenteron
  58. Deuterostomes
    Blastopore is site of future anus
  59. Protostomes
    Blastopore is site of mouth
  60. Mesoderm
    Musculoskeletal system, circulatory system, excretory system, and connective tissue
  61. Induction
    • Influence of specific group of cells on differentiation of another group of cells 
    • Ex: eyes and optic nerve, optic nerve reaches out and touches ectoderm inducing it to thicken and form lens
  62. Neurlation
    Development of rudimentary nervous systems
  63. Neutral Tube
    • Closed tube of neural folds
    • Gives rise to CNS
  64. Amnion
    • Thin tough membrane containing amniotic fluid
    • Shock absorber during labor
  65. Chorion
    Membrane that surrounds amnion and extends vii into uterine wall
  66. Allantois
    A third membrane that develops as an outpocketing off the gut
  67. Placenta
    Nourshes the fetus and provides sme respiratory functions
  68. Fetal Circulation vs Adult
    Blood is oxygenated in placenta instead of lungs