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What are tissues?
groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
which are the 4 basic tissues?
basic tissues- quick description of epithelial tissue?
- covers or lines something
- *also forms glands
basic tissues- quick description of connective tissue?
basic tissues- quick description of muscle tissue?
helps us move
basic tissues- quick description of nervous tissue?
controls our bodies
What is an epitheleal tissue or epithelium?
a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
epithelial cells- 6 special properties
- *lots of packed cells
- -specialized contacts
- *cells fit closely
- -polarity apical specializations
- *cells have a top and bottom
- -connective tissue support
- *it rests on a layer of connective tissue
- **the basement membrane
epithelial-apical specializations- cilia (3)
-propels substances along
-grw from surface of the cell
epithelial-apical specializations- Microvilli?
-increase surface area
What is basement membrane?
connects tissue which supports all epithelia
2 general types of epithelial cells
general types of epithelial cells- simple
single layer of cells
general types of epithelial cells- stratified
more than one layer of cells
4 examples of simple epithelial cells
3 examples of stratified cells
where do simple epithelium cells rest?
- on the basement membrane
- *not all reach the apical surface though
simple epithelial- simple squamous description (3)
-single layered cells
-simplest of epithelia
What is a simple squamous used for?
- filtration membrane where substances need to be exchanged
2 parts where simple squamous can be found?
-alveoli in lungs
simple epithelial- Simple cuboidal description
-cube shaped cells in a row
simple epithelial- Function of simple cuboidal (2)
-secretion and absorption
2 examples of simple cuboidal
-ducts of glands
simple epithelial- simple columnar description
tall blocks in a row
simple epithelial- simple columnar fucntion (2)
-secretion of mucus
2 areas where simple columnar can be found
-bronchi in lungs
simple epithelial- Pseudostratified description
- -all cells rest on basement membrane but not all cells reach the surface
- *the layer has cells of differing heights
simple epithelial- function of pseudostratified (2)
-secretion particularly of mucus
-propulsion of mucus by cillary action
location of pseudostratified cells
Do all of the stratified epithelium cells touch the basement and apical surface?
no not all
How are the stratified epithelium cells classified by?
-classified by the surface layer of cells
stratified epithelial cells- description of stratified squamous (2)
- -surface cells are full of keratin and dead
- -basal cells are active in mitsois and porduce new cells
- *inside the body
stratified epithelial cells- stratified squamous- location of keratinized
stratified epithelial cells- stratified squamous-location of non-keratinized
moist linings like the mouth
stratified epithelial cells- what is the function of the straitified squamous?
protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
stratified epithelial cells-function of transitional (stratified cuboidal) (2)
-permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine
where can transtional epithelial be found? (2)
stratified epithelial cells- fucntion of stratified columnar (2)
stratified epithelial cells- is the stratified columnar abundant in the body?
no, it is rare
stratified epithelial cells- where is one location that stratified columnar can be found at?
glandular epithelium-endocrine (2)
-they secrete into the blood system
glandular epithelium- exocrine (2)
-they release their substances through the glands which then connects to the skin or a specific organ
what does connective tissues do? (2)
-connects things in the body
-also a packing susbtance
what if the origin of connective tissue?
2 structural elemtns of connective tissue
strucutural elements of connective tissues- cells(2)
-maintain health of tissue
strucutural elements of connective tissues- Matrix (non cellular) what 2 things make up a matrix?
what is ground substance? (3)
-composed of GAGs
-traps and holds water to alter vicosity
connective tissue proper- loose- areolar description (2)
-gel like matrix
-contains: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and WBC
connective tissue proper-loose-areolar function (4)
-wraps and cushions organs
-macrophagus phagocytize bacteria
-importnt role in inflammation
connective tissue proper- loose-areolar how common is it?
it is the most abundant
connective tissue proper-loose- adipose tissue-desription
-closely packed adipocytes have nucleus psuhed to the side
connective tissue proper-loose- adipose tissue-fucntion (3)
-insulates the body
-supprots and protects the organs
connective tissue proper-loose- adipose tissue-does this tissue have a lot of matrix room?
- no just many cells
- *the matrix is sparse
connective tissue proper-loose- reticular tissue- description (2)
-network of fibers
-forms a skeleton like structure
connective tissue proper-loose- reticular tissue-fucntion
- -supports other cell types
- *fibers form a soft internal skeleton
what are connective tissue proper, dense connective tissue made offf?
mostly of fibers
connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense regular connective tissue description
-fibers run parallel to each other very closely packed
connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense regular connective tissue-functions (3)
-attaches msucle to bone or to msucles
-attaches bone to bones
-withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction
connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense regular connective tissue- what are the fibers made out of?
connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense irregular connective tissue - location
-dermis of the skin
connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense irregular connective tissue - function (2)
-withstands tension exerted in many direction
-provides structural strength
connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense irregular connective tissue -what is the major cell type for these?
connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense irregular connective tissue -description (2)
-irregularly arranged collagen fibers
-fibrous covering of organs
what is a cutaneous membrane? (2)
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
what is mucous membrane? (2)
- -lines body cavities with epithelium
- *opens to the outside
WHat is serous membrane? (2)
- -covers organs and lines body cavities with epithelium
- *lines body cavities, so is not exposed to the outside
What cells make up cartilage?
what two things makes up cartilage matrx?
- *collagen or elastic
cartilage- hyaline cartilage- are fibers visible on hyaline cartilage?
cartilage- hyaline cartilage-is the hyaline cartilage most abundant or rare?
cartilage- hyaline cartilage- what does hyaline cartilage cover?
cartilage- elastic cartilage- description
-high amounts of elastic fibers
cartilage- elastic cartilage-function
maintains the shape of a structure while allwoing great flexibility
cartilage- elastic cartilage-location
cartilage- fibro cartilage-description
-matrix similar to hyaline but has high amounts of collagen fibers
cartilage- fibro cartilage-fucntion
-tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
cartilage- fibro cartilage-location
what is the cell of bones?
what is a bones matrix made off?
fibers are collagen
what does the bones ground substance contain?
inorganic salts of calcium and phosphate tgat give its rigidity
Why is blood an atypical connective tissue?
bc it does not support things
what are the cells of the blood?
*white and red blood cells
What is the ground subsatnce of blood?
when do the fibers of blood appear?
when the blood is clotting
what is muscle tissue responsible for?
movements outside and inside of the body
what are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
muscle tissue-skeletal muscle- function (2)
-muscles of our body that make our bones move, also face
muscle tissue-skeletal muscle-is this muscle striated?
muscle tissue-cardiac muscle-function (2)
-as it contracts, propels blood into circulation
muscle tissue-cardiac muscle-location
-in the walls of the heart
muscle tissue-smooth msucle-fucntion (2)
-propels substances along internal passageways
muscle tissue-smooth msucle-is it straited?
muscle tissue-cardiac muscle- is it striated?
muscle tissue-smooth msucle-location
-walls of organs
nervous tissue- fucntion
nervous tissue- what are the supporting cells on the CNS called?
nervous tissue-what are the supproting cells on the peripheral called?