1.11.1

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Author:
efrain12
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235203
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1.11.1
Updated:
2013-09-16 20:13:15
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tissues
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  1. What are tissues?
    groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
  2. which are the 4 basic tissues?
    -epithelial tissue

    -connective tissue

    -muscle tissue

    -nervous tissue
  3. basic tissues- quick description of epithelial tissue?
    • covers or lines something
    • *also forms glands
  4. basic tissues- quick description of connective tissue?
    gives support
  5. basic tissues- quick description of muscle tissue?
    helps us move
  6. basic tissues- quick description of nervous tissue?
    controls our bodies
  7. What is an epitheleal tissue or epithelium?
    a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
  8. epithelial cells- 6 special properties
    • -celullarity
    • *lots of packed cells

    • -specialized contacts
    • *cells fit closely

    • -polarity apical specializations
    • *cells have a top and bottom

    • -connective tissue support
    • *it rests on a layer of connective tissue 
    • **the basement membrane

    -avascular

    -regeneration
  9. epithelial-apical specializations- cilia (3)
    -motile

    -propels substances along

    -grw from surface of the cell
  10. epithelial-apical specializations- Microvilli?
    -increase surface area
  11. What is basement membrane?
    connects tissue which supports all epithelia
  12. 2 general types of epithelial cells
    -simple

    -stratified
  13. general types of epithelial cells- simple
    single layer of cells
  14. general types of epithelial cells- stratified
    more than one layer of cells
  15. 4 examples of simple epithelial cells
    -squamos

    -cuboidal

    -columnar

    -pseudostratified
  16. 3 examples of stratified cells
    -squamous

    -cuboidal

    -columnal
  17. where do simple epithelium cells rest?
    • on the basement membrane
    • *not all reach the apical surface though
  18. simple epithelial- simple squamous description (3)
    -single layered cells

    -very thin

    -simplest of epithelia
  19. What is a simple squamous used for?
    • filtration membrane where substances need to be exchanged
    • *permeable
  20. 2 parts where simple squamous can be found?
    -kidney tubules

    -alveoli in lungs
  21. simple epithelial- Simple cuboidal description
    -cube shaped cells in a row
  22. simple epithelial- Function of simple cuboidal (2)
    -secretion and absorption
  23. 2 examples of simple cuboidal
    -kidney tubules

    -ducts of glands
  24. simple epithelial- simple columnar description
    tall blocks in a row
  25. simple epithelial- simple columnar fucntion (2)
    -absorption

    -secretion of mucus
  26. 2 areas where simple columnar can be found
    -digestive tract

    -bronchi in lungs
  27. simple epithelial- Pseudostratified description
    • -all cells rest on basement membrane but not all cells reach the surface
    • *the layer has cells of differing heights
  28. simple epithelial- function of pseudostratified (2)
    -secretion particularly of mucus

    -propulsion of mucus by cillary action
  29. location of pseudostratified cells
    trachea
  30. Do all of the stratified epithelium cells touch the basement and apical surface?
    no not all
  31. How are the stratified epithelium cells classified by?
    -classified by the surface layer of cells
  32. stratified epithelial cells- description of stratified squamous (2)
    • -surface cells are full of keratin and dead
    • *dry
    • *skin

    • -basal cells are active in mitsois and porduce new cells
    • *wet
    • *inside the body
  33. stratified epithelial cells- stratified squamous- location of keratinized
    skin
  34. stratified epithelial cells- stratified squamous-location of non-keratinized
    moist linings like the mouth
  35. stratified epithelial cells- what is the function of the straitified squamous?
    protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
  36. stratified epithelial cells-function of transitional (stratified cuboidal) (2)
    -stretches readily 

    -permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine
  37. where can transtional epithelial be found? (2)
    -urinary bladder

    -ureters
  38. stratified epithelial cells- fucntion of stratified columnar (2)
    -protection

    -secretion
  39. stratified epithelial cells- is the stratified columnar abundant  in the body?
    no, it is rare
  40. stratified epithelial cells- where is one location that stratified columnar can be found at?
    male urethra
  41. glandular epithelium-endocrine (2)
    -no ducts

    -they secrete into the blood system
  42. glandular epithelium- exocrine (2)
    -ducts

    -they release their substances through the glands which then connects to the skin or a specific organ
  43. what does connective tissues do? (2)
    -connects things in the body

    -also a packing susbtance
  44. what if the origin of connective tissue?
    mesenchyme
  45. 2 structural elemtns of connective tissue
    -cells

    -matrix
  46. strucutural elements of connective tissues- cells(2)
    -synthesize matrix

    -maintain health of tissue
  47. strucutural elements of connective tissues- Matrix (non cellular) what 2 things make up a matrix?
    -ground substance

    -fibers
  48. what is ground substance? (3)
    -amorphous

    -composed of GAGs

    -traps and holds water to alter vicosity
  49. connective tissue proper- loose- areolar description (2)
    -gel like matrix

    -contains: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and WBC
  50. connective tissue proper-loose-areolar function (4)
    -wraps and cushions organs

    -macrophagus phagocytize bacteria

    -importnt role in inflammation

    -packages organs
  51. connective tissue proper- loose-areolar how common is it?
    it is the most abundant
  52. connective tissue proper-loose- adipose tissue-desription
    -closely packed adipocytes have nucleus psuhed to the side
  53. connective tissue proper-loose- adipose tissue-fucntion (3)
    -stores nutrients

    -insulates the body

    -supprots and protects the organs
  54. connective tissue proper-loose- adipose tissue-does this tissue have a lot of matrix room?
    • no just many cells
    • *the matrix is sparse
  55. connective tissue proper-loose- reticular tissue- description (2)
    -network of fibers

    -forms a skeleton like structure
  56. connective tissue proper-loose- reticular tissue-fucntion
    • -supports other cell types
    • *fibers form a soft internal skeleton
  57. what are connective tissue proper, dense connective tissue made offf?
    mostly of fibers
  58. connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense regular connective tissue description
    -fibers run parallel to each other very closely packed
  59. connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense regular connective tissue-functions (3)
    -
    -attaches msucle to bone or to msucles

    -attaches bone to bones

    -withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction
  60. connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense regular connective tissue- what are the fibers made out of?
    fibroblast
  61. connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense irregular connective tissue - location
    -dermis of the skin
  62. connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense irregular connective tissue - function (2)
    -withstands tension exerted in many direction

    -provides structural strength
  63. connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense irregular connective tissue -what is the major cell type for these?
    fibroblast
  64. connective tissue proper- dense connective tissues-dense irregular connective tissue -description (2)
    -irregularly arranged collagen fibers

    -fibrous covering of organs
  65. what is a cutaneous membrane? (2)
    -skin

    keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  66. what is mucous membrane? (2)
    -mucosa

    • -lines body cavities with epithelium
    • *opens to the outside
  67. WHat is serous membrane? (2)
    -serosa

    • -covers organs and lines body cavities with epithelium
    • *lines body cavities, so is not exposed to the outside
  68. What cells make up cartilage?
    chondrocytes
  69. what two things makes up cartilage matrx?
    -ground substance

    • -fibers
    • *collagen or elastic
  70. cartilage- hyaline cartilage- are fibers visible on hyaline cartilage?
    no
  71. cartilage- hyaline cartilage-is the hyaline cartilage most abundant or rare?
    most abundant
  72. cartilage- hyaline cartilage- what does hyaline cartilage cover?
    articular surfaces
  73. cartilage- elastic cartilage- description
    -high amounts of elastic fibers
  74. cartilage- elastic cartilage-function
    maintains the shape of a structure while allwoing great flexibility
  75. cartilage- elastic cartilage-location
    -external ear


    -epiglottis
  76. cartilage- fibro cartilage-description
    -matrix similar to hyaline but has high amounts of collagen fibers
  77. cartilage- fibro cartilage-fucntion
    -tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
  78. cartilage- fibro cartilage-location
    -intervetebral disks

    -pubic symphysis

    -knee menesci
  79. what is the cell of bones?
    osteocytes
  80. what is a bones matrix made off?
    fibers are collagen
  81. what does the bones ground substance contain?
    inorganic salts of calcium and phosphate tgat give its rigidity
  82. Why is blood an atypical connective tissue?
    bc it does not support things
  83. what are the cells of the blood?
    blood cells

    *white and red blood cells
  84. What is the ground subsatnce of blood?
    plasma
  85. when do the fibers of blood appear?
    when the blood is clotting
  86. what is muscle tissue responsible for?
    movements outside and inside of the body
  87. what are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
    -skeletal

    -cardiac

    -smooth
  88. muscle tissue-skeletal muscle- function (2)
    -voluntary movement

    -muscles of our body that make our bones move, also face
  89. muscle tissue-skeletal muscle-is this muscle striated?
    yes, microscopically
  90. muscle tissue-cardiac muscle-function (2)
    -involuntary

    -as it contracts, propels blood into circulation
  91. muscle tissue-cardiac muscle-location
    -in the walls of the heart
  92. muscle tissue-smooth msucle-fucntion (2)
    -involuntray

    -propels substances along internal passageways
  93. muscle tissue-smooth msucle-is it straited?
    no
  94. muscle tissue-cardiac muscle- is it striated?
    yes
  95. muscle tissue-smooth msucle-location
    -walls of organs
  96. nervous tissue- fucntion
    conducts impulses
  97. nervous tissue- what are the supporting cells on the CNS called?
    glial cells
  98. nervous tissue-what are the supproting cells on the peripheral called?
    schwann cells
  99. nervous tissue-location
    -brain

    -spinal cord

    -nerves

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