Equine Clinical Management
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List 6 duties of an equine RVT
- 1. Assists in Diagnosis and Treatment of a) respiratory Diseases; b) Digestive Disease (colic); c) Lameness and d) Reproductive Diseases
- 2. Assist with pre and post surgery care in the clinic and field;
- 3. Assist with pre-breeding (mare & stallion) exams
- 4. Coggins testing (EIA)
- 5. Herd Health Work a) Vaccinations; b) deworming/pasture management; c) Sanitation/ventilation; d) Neonatal care; and e) Nutrition; and
- 6. Research
What Light Horse is protected by the Bureau of Land Management?
Name 12 Light Horse Breeds (<1300lbs)
- 1. American Mustang
- 2. American Saddlebred
- 3. Andalusian
- 4. Appaloosa
- 5. Arabian
- 6. American Quarter Horse
- 7. Standardbred
- 8. Thoroughbred
- 9. Morgan Horse
- 10. Tennessee Walking Horse
- 11. Lipizzaner
- 12. Paso Fino/Peruvian Paso
What Light Horse was bred as purebreds by King Solomon since 1600 B.C.
What Light horse is used in ranch work because they inherited "cow sense"?
American Quarter Horse
What Light Horse is an Austrian breed developed in 1585?
List 5 Draft Horse Breeds
- 1. Belgian
- 2. Clydesdale
- 3. Percheron
- 4. Shire
- 5. Suffolk Pu7nch
What Draft Horse breed originated in France in the 1600's and is the only draft horse with Arabian influence?
What Draft Horse breed originated in Scotland and the growth of long hair called "feathers on the back of the cannon bones?
What Draft Horse breed was developed in England and is the largest draft horse (up to 18 hands)
What Draft Horse breed was developed in England in 1506 A.D. - It is the only draft breed that breeds completely true color Chestnut?
List the 4 Pony Breeds
- 1. Hackney
- 2. Pony of the Americas
- 3. Shetland
- 4. Welsh
What pony breed originated in Iowa and what is it a cross between?
- Pony of the Americas
- Cross bet Shetland and Appaloosa
The Pony Breed Shetland was bred for what type of work?
What Pony Breed originated in Wales and is popular as children's mounts?
What other breed dates back to Northern Africa 6000 B.C.?
Male Donkey =
A stallion bred with a donkey produces =
Cross bet a Mare and a Male donkey =
- Male Donkey = Jack
- Female Donkey= Jenny
- A stallion bred with a donkey produces = Hinny
- Cross bet a Mare and a Male donkey = Mule
2 cross breeds that are considered sterile?
American Miniature is a _______ not a ______. They were developed by _________.
What breed was brought to America by the Spanish in 1530's? They can be any type except Quarter Horse
A horse that is any color with white. Must be Quarter Horse origin.
Name 3 color of horses that are rare
White, Black & Grullo
Common characteristic of Bays are
Dorsal line and zebra stripe
Deciduous Teeth =
Permanent Teeth =
Cups (lower) =
Full Set of Permanent Teeth=
Wolf Teeth =
7 yr notch =
Galvayne's groove =
- Deciduous Teeth = 8 days, 8 wks, 8 mos. - Incisors
- Permanent Teeth = 2 1/2 yrs (I1), 3 1/2 yrs (I2), 4 1/2 yrs (I3) - Incisors
- Cups (lower) = 6 yrs (I1), 7 yrs (I2), 8 yrs (I3)
- Cups (upper)= 7 yrs (I1), 8 yrs (I2), 9 yrs (I3)
- 5 yrs
- Wolf Teeth = 5-7 yrs
- 7 yr notch = I3 upper
- Galvayne's groove = 10-30 yrs I3 upper
Eohippus (______) ______ years ago
a. ______ tall
b. ______ on front feet - used for walking on bogs
c. ______ on hind feet
d. Teeth were ______
e. ______ not ______, lived in the ______.
- Dawn Horse
- 55 million
- 4 toes
- 3 toes
- simple crowns
- Browser; grazer; forest
Mesohippus (_______) _______ years ago
a. _______ tall
b. Each foot had _______, _______ was the largest
c. Type of eater
d. Teeth grew bigger.
- Middle horse; 35 million
- 20 inches
- three toes; middle toe
Merychippus (_____) _____ years ago
a. _____ tall
b. _____ larger, ended in _____, and bore all the _____.
c. Time of mountain development, thinning of the forests.
d. Horse started _____, teeth developed _____ and good _____ for grinding course grasses.
- Grass eater; 26 million
- 40 inches
- Middle toes; hoof; weight
- grazing; high crowns; cementum
Pliohippus (______) ______ years ago
a. Taller - equivalent to horses today.
b. ______ became bones on side of legs. (______)
c. Teeth changed to adapt to ______.
d. Eyes wider for ______.
- One-toed grazer; 2-3 million
- horses today;
- Sides toes; Splint bones
- eating grass
- better vision
a. ______ has terminated into a ______.
b. Teeth high ______, will keep on growing throughout horses' life.
- True Horse
- Middle toe; stout hoof
List the three groups of undomesticated species.
- 1. The zebra of Africa
- 2. the wild ass of Africa and Asia and
- 3. the Przewalski's horse.
Equus was plentiful in the Americas until the ______ era when they died out. As evolution occurred the horse reduced to one toe, which is actually the _______. Toes ______ are missing, and ______ are what we call the ______.
- third toe
- one and five
- two and four
- "splint" bones
What were horses were used for by prehistoric man.
Horses became domesticated during the ______. Domestic horses were introduced into ______ in about ______ and into ______ about ______. These Egyptian and Babylonian horses were the forerunners of the swift ______ breeds of the Middle East.
- Bronze Age
- Babylonia; 2000 BC
- Egypt; 300 years later
2 early ancestors of the modern draft horse
- prototype of the modern pony
The first domestic horses introduced into the Americas were brought by the _________ in the _______. The ancestors of the these horses are the _______ found in the western United States.
- Spanish conquistadores
- 16th century
What Greek historian, soldier and essayist is considered by many to be the father of horsemanship? His essays from _______ are still the foundation of modern horsemanship. When and who introduced horseback riding throughout the Middle East?
- 400 BC
- 6th century
- Muslim missionaries
Systematic attempts to improve breeds of horses did not take place until the _____ when _____ stallions were imported to _______.
- 17th century
The Thoroughbred was developed from what three foundation sires?
- the Byerly Turk
- the Darley Arabian, and
- the Godolphin Barb or Arabian - which were bred with native English mares.
The British Stud Book was established in ____. The American Stud began in ____.
In ____, Smithfield Track, the first public racecourse built since Roman times was constructed in ____. In ____ the first track in North America was built on ____. In ____ the Jockey Club was incorporated in ________.
- 1665; Long Island
- 1894; New York City
What caused the equine population to decline in numbers and what ensures that the species will endure?
the development of mechanical transportation enthusiast have ensured that the species will endure.
Bold, Bald, or Apron face
- Snip - marking on horses nose, usually found between the nostrils.
- Star - Any shape found on forehead
- Stripe - white line down the face
- Blaze - white band down the horses face
- White underlip - white on underlip
- Bold, Bald, or Apron face - White from forehead to muzzle, extends around the eyes & often covers entire front of the face.
- Coronet - white around the coronary band
- Pastern - white from hoof to the pastern joint
- Fetlock - white from hoof to fetlock joint
- Half-Stocking - white from hoof and going 1/2 way to carpus.
- 3/4 Stocking - white from the hoof to 3/4 way to carpus.
- Full Stocking - white all the way up to the carpus.
What is our holding stall called?
Mouth speculum for horse is called
What is the 1st reaction a horse has when faced with an unfamiliar situation?
Fight or Flight
What type of restraint can you use when the horse is moving around too much in the standing stock?
What kind of equipment is used to exercise or to watch the horse's gait?
Where is the blind spot(s) for a horse?
Directly in front or directly behind the horse
Best place to approach a horse
What 3 things should be considered when determining housing and facilities?
3 types of fencing?
- Smooth wire cable
- Mesh wire
What mechanical restraint can be used if you get extra resistance or want better control?
How is it applied?
How long does the effect last?
- Lip chain
- a) Thru cheek ring, chin ring and then thru other cheek ring b) over the nose c)in the mouth between the teeth
- 5 mins
If the horse is in the stock and there is an emergency condition what do you do?
Remove all 4 doors
What are 4 mechanical restraints of the body?
- 1. Stocks
- 2. Side Line or Scotch Hobble
- 3. Front Leg Tie
- 4. Breeding hobbles
6 ways to restrain using pain distraction
- 1. Chain Twitch
- 2. Rope Twitch
- 3. Humane Twitch
- 4. Hand Twitch
- 5. War Bridles
- 6. Skin Twitch
How do you restrain a foal? List one type of restraint that should NEVER be used.
- Corner it in a stall
- Hold with arm around the chest & raise the tail over the back
- Never flank a foal like a calf
List 4 chemical restraints
- 1. Xylazine - brand name Rompun
- 2. Torbugesic (Butophanal Tartrate)
- 3. Acepromazine Maleate
- 4. Dormasedan
What drug will result in the horse going to the ground?
What is the best location of the horse for injections?
List 4 injection locations for the horse
- 1. Triangle of the Neck
- 2. Gluteal Muscle
- 3. Pectoral muscle
- 4. Semimembranosus/Semitendonosus Muscle
Name the bones in the:
Proximal row of the carpus
Distal row of the carpus
- radial, intermediate, ulnar and accessory
- 1, 2, 3, 4
The hock is also known as the
List 3 characteristics an Appaloosa MUST have
- 1. Mottled skin
- 2. Striped hooves
- 3. White sclera
List 4 horses that originated in the US
- American Quarter Horse
- American Saddlebred (KY)
- Tennessee Walking Horse
List 3 horses that originated in England
- Suffolk Punch
List 3 horses that originated in Spain
- Paso Fino
- Pervuvian Paso
List unique characteristics of the Arabian
- Dish face/flat back/hifg tail carriage
- 1 less vertebrae
- High temperment
What is the gait of a Tennessee Walking horse called?
- Red Roan - White hairs with bay base color
- Strawberry Roan - White hairs with Chestnut base color
- Blue Roan - White hairs with black base color
Which horse originated in the US buy Nez Perce' Native Americans?
What is a unique characteristic of the Lippizzaner?
Born black but develop white coat with age.
Two early horses that were browsers
What was the the 1st grass eater?
- Eohippus; Mesohippus
Callous growths on the medial sides of horses legs
What teeth do owners typically pull?
Describe the shape of the teeth in older horses verses younger horses
Younger horses have a more rounded appearance. As the horse ages the teeth take on a more triangular shape.
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