urinalysis

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Author:
vanessasoto
ID:
235215
Filename:
urinalysis
Updated:
2013-09-16 20:53:13
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  1. how long should you centrifuge a sample and how many rpm
    3-5 minutes at ~2000 rpm
  2. steps for sediment testing
    • centrifuge sample
    • decant supernatant
    • may stain or use unstained
    • place sediment on slide
    • low power scan 10x
  3. what supravital stain is commonly used for sediments testing
    new methylene blue and sedistain
  4. romanowsky stains used for
    diff quick or wrights
  5. what are gram stains used for
    bacteria
  6. how do you examine sediments
    • adjust light
    • examine entire slide
    • quantify cells and casts
    • note organisms-expect bacteria unless sterile
  7. how would you number cells and cast when doing a sediment examine
    • number per high power field
    • number per low power field
    • tntc- too numerous to count
  8. what are found in high power field 40x
    cells and organisms
  9. what cells do you see in sediments
    • epithelial cell
    • erythrocytes
    • leukocytes
    • bacteria and yeast
    • sperm
    • parasite eggs-not usually found
  10. what are the unorganized sediments
    • crystals
    • cast
  11. crystal
    • many hard to id
    • only cysteine significant
    • don't worry about it unless fresh
    • seen in low power 10x
  12. cast
    • usually large and cylindrical
    • from renal tubule
    • don't do much with it
    • seen in low power 10x
  13. erythrocytes
    • small round cells
    • uniform in size
    • no internal structure-no nucleus
    • crenate in hypertonic urine
    • swell in hypotonic urine
    • up to 5/hpf is okay
  14. leukocytes
    • round cells
    • slightly larger than rbcs
    • usually appear granular-nuclear shape may be visible
    • up to 8/hpf is wnl
  15. what wbc is mostly seen
    neutrophils
  16. what is the largest cell you will see
    epithelial cell
  17. epithelial cell
    • squamous large plate like-vaginal distal urethra, rounded nucleus
    • transitional-line urinary tract
    • renal cells-from tubules in kidney, smallest, least common, slightly larger than wbc
  18. squamous cell
    • large plate like
    • small nucleus
    • angular outline
    • from vagina urethra and prepuce
    • common in free catch
  19. transitional cell
    • vary in size
    • second to largest cell in urine
    • round to oval
    • line bladder and urethra
    • increase in inflammation
  20. whats another  word for neutrophil  wbc
    segs
  21. renal cell
    • slightly larger than wbc
    • resemble mononuclear cells
    • normal in small numbers
    • if a lot hard to tell from wbc
  22. bacteria
    • normal in voided samples
    • abnormal in cystocentesis
    • if significant see a lot of wbc
    • small may vibrate-Brownian movement
    • rods, cocci, in clumps and chains
  23. what is the most common cast seen
    granular
  24. cast
    • large see in low power 10x
    • usually cylindrical
    • ends rounded or blunt
    • 2-4/lpf within normal limits
    • if more suggest renal damage

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