Clinical Pathology I - Week 2
Card Set Information
Clinical Pathology I - Week 2
Clinical Pathology - Dr. Moore
what does MCHC mean?
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
What are echinocytes?
RBCs with multiple projections
In target cells, what should be in the center of the colored pigment?
hemoglobin carrying oxygen
what is anemia?
low amount of RBCs (Dr. Moore)
Do you record a failed answer when running a PCV?
What is the interval between the two PCV results?
If the interval between the two PCV results is greater than 2, would should you do?
what is the buffy coat comprised of?
white blood cells
what occurs during hemolysis?
hemoglobin turns the plasma red
what are considered toxins?
anesthesia, flea prevention, etc.
anything not in the main four categories
what are the four items considered non-toxic?
what does CIN stand for?
chronic interstitial nephritis
what does erythropoiesis need to work?
what is erythropoietin?
hormone necessary for RBC production
what is erythropoiesis?
where is erythropoietin created?
what are the five nutrients required for erythropoiesis?
high quality proteins
water soluble vitamins
source of calories
what is necessary to store iron?
what is necessary to store copper?
what is considered high quality proteins?
all essential amino acids
what vitamins are water soluble and necessary for erythropoiesis?
what does TDN stand for?
total digestible nitrogen
what are the 3 H's?
what are fat soluble vitamins?
what are the B complex vitamins?
what is another name for vitamin B1?
what is another name for vitamin B3?
what is another name for vitamin B2?
what is another name for vitamin B6?
what is another name for vitamin B9?
what is another name for vitamin B12?
what process requires all of the vitamin B complex?
what do round worms and hook worms cause?
what worm absorbs nutrients?
what is the #1 reason a dog has issues with erythropoiesis?
poor diet - either poor quality or not enough; could have gingivitis causing the dog not to eat
what is Garbage Can Syndrome considered?
what are the two types of anemia?
describe the RBCs on a blood smear indicative of regenerative anemia
what is meant by regenerative anemia?
can be "cured" once the cause is removed, such as fleas, and new RBCs can once again be produced through erythropoeisis
what is meant by non-regenerative anemia?
the amount of erythropoiesis is insufficient for the degree of anemia
what is involved with non-regenerative anemia?
CIN - chronic interstitial nephritis
what is the only way to distinguish between regenerative and non-regenerative anemia?
viewing the RBC morphology on a blood smear under the microscope
what is the normal amount of reticulocytes in canine blood?
what are the two causes of regenerative anemia?
blood loss dues to trauma
what form of anemia is aplastic anemia?
what does aplastic anemia cause?
irreversible damage to the bone marrow
what are another two causes for aplastic anemia?
what seven things can cause non-regenerative anemia?
Lymphosarcamo is a result of what disease?
what is in the blood that bacteria love to eat?
what PCV value suggests a blood transfusion is necessary for a canine?
12% or less
what PCV value suggests a blood transfusion is necessary for a feline?
10% or less
why would you NOT give a blood transfusion when the PCV results were close to the indicators?
it allows the patient's body a "chance" to resume erythropoeiesis, otherwise the body will not begin erythropoeiesis since there has been an infusion of RBCs
what is the kidney also known as, other than renal?
what is the function of the glomerulus?
filters toxins from the blood
what is the function of the tubule?
what sign does the patient display as a result of insufficient circulating RBCs, therefore insufficient hemoblogin and oxygen?
what is the normal PCV value for a cow?
what is the normal PCV value for a cat?
what is the normal PCV value for a dog?
what is the normal PCV value for a cold blooded horse?
what is the normal PCV value for a warm blooded horse?
what is the normal PCV value for a hot blooded horse?
what is the life span of RBCs in a dog?
what two illnesses/clinical signs can be determined by the PCV for a horse?
what three illnesses/clinical signs can be determined by a low PCV value?
blood loss due to trauma
lack of RBC production
what is the life span of WBCs in a dog?
2-6 hours (<12 hours)
what happens to iron-only vitamins?
they go straight through the digestive system without being absorbed
what can interfere with erythropoiesis?
if anemia is not a disease, then what is it?
sign of an underlying problem
what is hemolytic anemia?
destruction of RBCs
what stimulates the production of erythropoietin?
what is tissue hypoxia?
lack of oxygen in the tissues
what is glycogen?
the storage form of glucose
what is the storage form of glucose?
where is glycogen stored?
what is starch?
the storage form of glucose in plants
how often should young mammals eat?
every 2-3 hours
why should young mammals eat often?
immature liver and muscles therefore cannot store glycogen
why do birds constantly eat?
little or no liver to store glycogen
muscles cannot store glycogen to keep them light for flight
what is lymphocarcoma?
metastasized cancer in the bone marrow
if a dog's PCV value is low, and the blood smear shows normocytic and normochromic RBCs, what is indicated?
what is commonly seen in a blood smear with anemia?
what is the anticoagulant of choice for hematologic analysis?
what does EDTA stand for?
etylenediamine tetra-acetic acid
how do you transfer blood from the needle/syringe to a vial?
tilt vial so blood runs down the side
gently mixed to avoid coagulation
what do you avoid when you transfer blood from needle/syringe to a vial properly?
how long will blood stay viable in an EDTA vial at room temperature?
how long can blood be refrigerated and stay viable?
24 hours at 4C
what happens to blood if left sitting in an EDTA vial at room temperature for more than 3 hours?
what is hematocrit?
same as PCV
ratio of volume of erythrocytes to whole blood
what two ways can PCV be determined?
what is the macromethod for calculating PCV?
well mixed anticoagulated whole blood placed in Wintrobe hematocrit tube and centrifuged at 2500 G for 30 min
what is the micromethod for calculating PCV?
capillary tube centrifuged at 10,000-13,000 G for 5 min
what are the two types of capillary tubes used?
what is on the rim of a heparinized capillary tube?
what is on the rim of a non-heparinized capillary tube?
what are the two types of capillary tube sealers?
what is in the buffy coat?
How do you distinguish the buffy coat in a centrifuged vial?
above the RBCs and below the serum
where can you see microfilaria in a capillary tube if they are present?
above the buffy coat
what is the most frequent cause of hemolysis?
poor technique in blood sample collection
what are the steps to run a PCV?
1. capillary tube filled 60-75%
2. seal one end with clay
3. place in centrifuge with clay point away from the center
4. spin 5 min
5. remove and observe only the RBCs
what are the components in plasma?
what is a special word for dehydration?
what is the actual definition for hypovolemia?
low blood volume hence, dehydration
what are the two methods for blood smear prepping?
1. cover slip
2. glass slide
what is show in a great distribution on a peripheral blood smear?
what three factors control the thickness of a blood smear?
1. angle of spreader slide
2. speed of spreading
3. size of blood drop
what is the most common stain used for blood?
what are the steps to estimate the total WBC count from a blood smear?
1. use 50X objective
2. count number of leukocytes in each of ten fields
3. use formula >>> average number of WBC counted per field X 2,000
what is the formula for estimating total WBC count?
average number of WBC counted per field X 2,000
what are the steps to estimate the platelet count?
1. use 100X objective
2. count number of platelets in each of ten fields
3. use formula >>> average number of platelets counted per field X 20,000
what is the formula for estimating total platelet count?
average number of platelets counted per field X 20,000