Clinical Pathology I - Week 2

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tscoular
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235237
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Clinical Pathology I - Week 2
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2013-09-17 22:37:11
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pathology veterinary
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Clinical Pathology - Dr. Moore
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  1. what does MCHC mean?
    Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
  2. What are echinocytes?
    RBCs with multiple projections
  3. In target cells, what should be in the center of the colored pigment?
    hemoglobin carrying oxygen
  4. what is anemia?
    low amount of RBCs (Dr. Moore)
  5. Do you record a failed answer when running a PCV?
    yes
  6. What is the interval between the two PCV results?
    2
  7. If the interval between the two PCV results is greater than 2, would should you do?
    retest
  8. what is the buffy coat comprised of?
    white blood cells
  9. what occurs during hemolysis?
    hemoglobin turns the plasma red
  10. what are considered toxins?
    • anesthesia, flea prevention, etc.
    • anything not in the main four categories
  11. what are the four items considered non-toxic?
    • water
    • proteins
    • carbs
    • fats/lipids
  12. what does CIN stand for?
    chronic interstitial nephritis
  13. what does erythropoiesis need to work?
    erythropoietin
  14. what is erythropoietin?
    hormone necessary for RBC production
  15. what is erythropoiesis?
    RBC production
  16. where is erythropoietin created?
    kidney
  17. what are the five nutrients required for erythropoiesis?
    • iron
    • high quality proteins
    • water
    • water soluble vitamins
    • source of calories
  18. what is necessary to store iron?
    copper
  19. what is necessary to store copper?
    cobalt
  20. what is considered high quality proteins?
    all essential amino acids
  21. what vitamins are water soluble and necessary for erythropoiesis?
    B complex
  22. what does TDN stand for?
    total digestible nitrogen
  23. what are the 3 H's?
    • hair
    • hooves
    • horns
  24. what are fat soluble vitamins?
    • a
    • d
    • e
    • k
  25. what are the B complex vitamins?
    • thiamine
    • niacin
    • riboflavin
    • pyridoxin
    • folic acid
    • B12
  26. what is another name for vitamin B1?
    thiamine
  27. what is another name for vitamin B3?
    niacin
  28. what is another name for vitamin B2?
    riboflavin
  29. what is another name for vitamin B6?
    pyridoxin
  30. what is another name for vitamin B9?
    folic acid
  31. what is another name for vitamin B12?
    cobalamin
  32. what process requires all of the vitamin B complex?
    erythropoiesis
  33. what do round worms and hook worms cause?
    blood loss
  34. what worm absorbs nutrients?
    tapeworms
  35. what is the #1 reason a dog has issues with erythropoiesis?
    poor diet - either poor quality or not enough; could have gingivitis causing the dog not to eat
  36. what is Garbage Can Syndrome considered?
    gastroenteritis
  37. what are the two types of anemia?
    • regenerative anemia
    • non-regenerative anemia
  38. describe the RBCs on a blood smear indicative of regenerative anemia
    • reticulocytes
    • anisocytosis
    • polychromasia
  39. what is meant by regenerative anemia?
    can be "cured" once the cause is removed, such as fleas, and new RBCs can once again be produced through erythropoeisis
  40. what is meant by non-regenerative anemia?
    the amount of erythropoiesis is insufficient for the degree of anemia
  41. what is involved with non-regenerative anemia?
    CIN - chronic interstitial nephritis
  42. what is the only way to distinguish between regenerative and non-regenerative anemia?
    viewing the RBC morphology on a blood smear under the microscope
  43. what is the normal amount of reticulocytes in canine blood?
    0.5-1%
  44. what are the two causes of regenerative anemia?
    • blood loss dues to trauma
    • hemolytic anemia
  45. what form of anemia is aplastic anemia?
    non-regenerative anemia
  46. what does aplastic anemia cause?
    irreversible damage to the bone marrow
  47. what are another two causes for aplastic anemia?
    • radiation
    • certain drugs
  48. what seven things can cause non-regenerative anemia?
    • aplastic anemia
    • kidney damage
    • internal parasites
    • poor nutrition
    • drugs
    • lymphosarcoma
    • bacterial infections
  49. Lymphosarcamo is a result of what disease?
    myeloproliferative disease
  50. what is in the blood that bacteria love to eat?
    iron
  51. what PCV value suggests a blood transfusion is necessary for a canine?
    12% or less
  52. what PCV value suggests a blood transfusion is necessary for a feline?
    10% or less
  53. why would you NOT give a blood transfusion when the PCV results were close to the indicators?
    it allows the patient's body a "chance" to resume erythropoeiesis, otherwise the body will not begin erythropoeiesis since there has been an infusion of RBCs
  54. what is the kidney also known as, other than renal?
    the nephron
  55. what is the function of the glomerulus?
    filters toxins from the blood
  56. what is the function of the tubule?
    maintain hydration
  57. what sign does the patient display as a result of insufficient circulating RBCs, therefore insufficient hemoblogin and oxygen?
    lethargy
  58. what is the normal PCV value for a cow?
    35%
  59. what is the normal PCV value for a cat?
    35-37%
  60. what is the normal PCV value for a dog?
    40-45%
  61. what is the normal PCV value for a cold blooded horse?
    35%
  62. what is the normal PCV value for a warm blooded horse?
    35-42%
  63. what is the normal PCV value for a hot blooded horse?
    42%
  64. what is the life span of RBCs in a dog?
    120 days
  65. what two illnesses/clinical signs can be determined by the PCV for a horse?
    • colic
    • shock
  66. what three illnesses/clinical signs can be determined by a low PCV value?
    • blood loss due to trauma
    • hemolytic anemia
    • lack of RBC production
  67. what is the life span of WBCs in a dog?
    2-6 hours (<12 hours)
  68. what happens to iron-only vitamins?
    they go straight through the digestive system without being absorbed
  69. what can interfere with erythropoiesis?
    kidney damage
  70. if anemia is not a disease, then what is it?
    sign of an underlying problem
  71. what is hemolytic anemia?
    destruction of RBCs
  72. what stimulates the production of erythropoietin?
    tissue hypoxia
  73. what is tissue hypoxia?
    lack of oxygen in the tissues
  74. what is glycogen?
    the storage form of glucose
  75. what is the storage form of glucose?
    glycogen
  76. where is glycogen stored?
    liver
  77. what is starch?
    the storage form of glucose in plants
  78. how often should young mammals eat?
    every 2-3 hours
  79. why should young mammals eat often?
    immature liver and muscles therefore cannot store glycogen
  80. why do birds constantly eat?
    • little or no liver to store glycogen
    • muscles cannot store glycogen to keep them light for flight
  81. what is lymphocarcoma?
    metastasized cancer in the bone marrow
  82. if a dog's PCV value is low, and the blood smear shows normocytic and normochromic RBCs, what is indicated?
    non-regenerative anemia
  83. what is commonly seen in a blood smear with anemia?
    target cells
  84. what is the anticoagulant of choice for hematologic analysis?
    EDTA
  85. what does EDTA stand for?
    etylenediamine tetra-acetic acid
  86. how do you transfer blood from the needle/syringe to a vial?
    • tilt vial so blood runs down the side
    • gently mixed to avoid coagulation
  87. what do you avoid when you transfer blood from needle/syringe to a vial properly?
    hemolysis
  88. how long will blood stay viable in an EDTA vial at room temperature?
    8 hours
  89. how long can blood be refrigerated and stay viable?
    24 hours at 4C
  90. what happens to blood if left sitting in an EDTA vial at room temperature for more than 3 hours?
    leukocyte changes
  91. what is hematocrit?
    • same as PCV
    • ratio of volume of erythrocytes to whole blood
  92. what two ways can PCV be determined?
    • 1. macromethod
    • 2. micromethod
  93. what is the macromethod for calculating PCV?
    well mixed anticoagulated whole blood placed in Wintrobe hematocrit tube and centrifuged at 2500 G for 30 min
  94. what is the micromethod for calculating PCV?
    capillary tube centrifuged at 10,000-13,000 G for 5 min
  95. what are the two types of capillary tubes used?
    • heparinized
    • non-heparinized
  96. what is on the rim of a heparinized capillary tube?
    red line
  97. what is on the rim of a non-heparinized capillary tube?
    nothing
  98. what are the two types of capillary tube sealers?
    • critoseal
    • seal ease
  99. what is in the buffy coat?
    • platelets
    • WBCs
  100. How do you distinguish the buffy coat in a centrifuged vial?
    above the RBCs and below the serum
  101. where can you see microfilaria in a capillary tube if they are present?
    above the buffy coat
  102. what is the most frequent cause of hemolysis?
    poor technique in blood sample collection
  103. what are the steps to run a PCV?
    • 1. capillary tube filled 60-75%
    • 2. seal one end with clay
    • 3. place in centrifuge with clay point away from the center
    • 4. spin 5 min
    • 5. remove and observe only the RBCs
  104. what are the components in plasma?
    • hormones
    • enzymes
    • antibodies
    • transport proteins
    • coagulation factors
  105. what is a special word for dehydration?
    hypovolemia
  106. what is the actual definition for hypovolemia?
    low blood volume hence, dehydration
  107. what are the two methods for blood smear prepping?
    • 1. cover slip
    • 2. glass slide
  108. what is show in a great distribution on a peripheral blood smear?
    WBCs
  109. what three factors control the thickness of a blood smear?
    • 1. angle of spreader slide
    • 2. speed of spreading
    • 3. size of blood drop
  110. what is the most common stain used for blood?
    Wright stain
  111. what are the steps to estimate the total WBC count from a blood smear?
    • 1. use 50X objective
    • 2. count number of leukocytes in each of ten fields
    • 3. use formula >>> average number of WBC counted per field  X 2,000
  112. what is the formula for estimating total WBC count?
    average number of WBC counted per field  X 2,000
  113. what are the steps to estimate the platelet count?
    • 1. use 100X objective
    • 2. count number of platelets in each of ten fields
    • 3. use formula >>> average number of platelets counted per field X 20,000
  114. what is the formula for estimating total platelet count?
    average number of platelets counted per  field X 20,000

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