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  1. Monera/Prokaryotes
    • Bacteria are single celled 
    • Classified based on their shape
    • Two types, archea and bacteria
    • Archea are more closely related to eukaryotes
    • All lack membrane bound organelles
    • No nucleus, nucleoid region in which the genome consists is a single circular piece of DNA
  2. Rod Shapped
  3. Spherical
  4. Plasmids
    • Small circular pieces o extracellular DNA
    • Replicate independently of central DNA  
    • Allow prokaryotes to uptake new DNA and adapt to harsh external conditions
  5. Gram Staining
    • Commonly used to separate bacteria into two groups 
    • Gram positive have thick peptidoglycon cell walls and old stain, no outer membrane
    • Gram negative stains have thin petigoglycon cell walls, and outer membrane
  6. Capsule
    • Layer of sticky polysaccharides found around cell membrane and cell wall 
    • Help attach to things and pathogenic bacteria use this to avoid detection by the immune system because they look organic
  7. Bacteria Reproduction
    • Reproduce via binary fission
    • Asexually 
    • Can exchange genetic into through conjugation but occurs separate from cell division
  8. Obligate Anerobes
    Cannot survive in the presence of oxygen
  9. Facultative anerobes
    • Photosynthetic, using light to generate E and produce their own nutrients
    • Can become anaerobic if without oxygen, but gives much less energy
  10. Chemoautotrophs
    Energy from chemicals and make their own nutrients
  11. Chemoheterophs
    Consume organic molecule for C and energy soure gets glucose from environment
Card Set:
2013-09-17 01:59:47
Biology GRE

Biology GRE
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