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all humans learn to do, use, produce, know, and believe
the difficulty people have adjusting to a different culture
when people make judgments about different cultures in comparison to their own
cultural groups must be studied on their own before they can be compared
Two components of culture
- Material: products of technology
- Nonmaterial: products of the mind
rules of behavior that are agreed upon and shared within a culture
strongly held norms that hold great consequence if broken
Norms that have a wide range of interpretation given the situation
expectations of people under perfect circumstances
norms with qualifications and allowances per individual
culture's general orientation towards life
language determines a person's perception of reality
What are the two mechanisms for change?
any new practice or tool widely accepted
movement of cultural traits from one culture to another
a trait is modified in some way that it fits in its new context
new patterns emerge, even if they are in conflict with traditional values
the distinctive lifestyles, values, norms, and beliefs of certain segments of the population within a society
what are the five types of subcultures?
- social class
models or patterns for social behaviors that have developed in all cultures to resolve common problems
what are some cultural universals?
- division of labor
- rites of passage