Medical Emergencies

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Anonymous
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235268
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Medical Emergencies
Updated:
2013-09-16 23:08:20
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DEN 125
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Lecture 4
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  1. What are (3) Types of Unconsciousness
    • 1. Syncope
    • 2. Orthostatic Hypotension
    • 3. Acute Adrenal Insufficiency
  2. Anoxia
    Absence or lack of oxygen
  3. Coma
    • Deep Sleep. 
    • State of unconsciousness from which you cannot be aroused.
  4. Consciousness
    • Aware
    • Capable of responding appropriately to questions or commands
    • Protective reflexes are intact
    • Ability to maintain a patent airway.
  5. Faint
    Sudden, transient loss of consciousness
  6. Hypoxia
    Low Oxygen Content
  7. Factors that Cause Syncope:
    • -reduction or interruption in cerebral blood flow
    • -->usually resultingfrom an abrupt loss of cardiac output
  8. Syncope
    • Sudden, transient loss of consciousness w/out symptoms followed by resumption of consciousness w/in seconds to minutes
    • -used interchangeably with the term faint.
  9. Unconsciousness
    Lack of response to sensory stimulation
  10. (3) Predisposing Factors for Unconsciousness:
    • 1. Stress
    • 2. Impaired physical status (ASA III or IV)
    • 3. Administration or ingestion of drugs:
    • -Analgesics (CNS depressant); Antianxiety agents (CNS depressant); Antibiotics, Local Anesthetics (most common dental drug).
  11. List the (4) General Causes of Unconsciousness
    • 1. Inadequate cerebral circulation & oxygen deprivation.
    • 2. Metabolic Changes
    • 3. Actions of the CNS
    • 4. Psychic Mechanisms
  12. (5) Steps in Management of Unconscious Patient
    • PCABD
    • P-Position Victim (SUPINE)
    • C-Circulation
    • A-assess and open AirwayB-Breathing - assess & ventilate if necessary

    D- Definitive management
  13. Vasodepressor Syncope
    • aka
    • Vasovagal Syncope
    • Common (simple, benign) faint
    • Neurogenic, psychogenic syncope
    • Swoon
    • Most Common emergency
    • -53% of all emergencies
  14. What are (5) Psychogenic Predisposing Factors?:
    • •anxiety
    • •emotional
    • •receiving unwelcome news,
    • •sudden pain
    • •blood
  15. What are (7) Non-Psychogenic Predisposing Factors:
    • –Erect posture,
    • –hunger,
    • –dieting,
    • –exhaustion,
    • –poor physical condition,
    • –hot humid environment,
    • –male,
    • –ages
    • 16-35
  16. List (3) Types & Etiologies of Syncope
    • •Cardiac Syncope
    • •Noncardiac Syncope
    • •Neurocardiac/Vasodepressor
    • Syncope


  17. Cardiac Syncope
  18. –Inadequate cardiac output
    • --Electrical problems (arrhythmias) or
    • --mechanical problems (obstructive) cause this
  19. Noncardiac Syncope
    • –Seizures,
    • -orthostatic hypotension,
    • -situational occurrences,
    • -hyperventilation,
    • -metabolic disease
  20. Neurocardiac/Vasodepressor
    Syncope
    –Pain, fear, exhaustion, acute illness

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