HLT 3301 Test I

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HLT 3301 Test I
2010-06-15 02:07:20

Individual Behavior with Health Consequences
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  1. Health, as used in this class, is best defined as
    Soundness of body and mind: a state of physical, emotional, and social well-being.

    Or complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
  2. Chronic diseases, in contrast to acute illnesses,
    Leading cause of death has shifted from acute illnesses to chronic diseases

    Chronic lasts more than 3 months (is also persistent) acute is short
  3. At this time, the leading cause of death in the United States is
    Cardiovascular disease
  4. Health psychology is best defined as the scientific study of behaviors related to
    illness, injury, health, recovery, and impact of each human life

    Definition: The study of how biological, psychological, and social factors interact and influence people's biological, psychological, and sociocultural health
  5. Which represents a major change in the field of health during the past century in the United States
    The leading cause of injury and death is more closely related to prevention
  6. The biomedical model of health
    • taking care of acute illnesses,
    • led to a search for microorganisms that cause disease,
    • is a narrow perspective; when someone is ill or is injured only their physical self is affected and must be treated.

    • Should always consider the interacting roles of biological, psychological, and social factors in assessing an individual’s health or illness;
    • Maintains recommendations for treatment mustw also involve all three set of factors;
    • makes explicit the significant of the relationship between patient and practitioner
  7. In the United States, young people (15-24) have low mortality rates, but those who die are most like to die from
    Unintentional injuries
  8. Psychological systems include
    • thinking (cognitions)
    • emotions (affect)
    • behavior itself
  9. The term cognition referes to
    • what people believe
    • the act or process of knowing
  10. The research field that investigates national or global diseases is called
  11. Reliability of any measurement instrument, such as a scale, means the instrument is
  12. Research has found that the likelihood of developing cancer increases with the number of years people have smoked. This finding
  13. An investigator measures blood pressure in a group of college students and then repeats these measures every year for 20 years. This is an example of
    Longitudinal study
  14. To conclude that a medical treatment cures or improves a disease, an experiment must compare the disease in a group given the treatment to a group given
    A placebo

  15. In experiments when neither researchers nor subjects know which group received the experimental treatment and which received a placebo, the research design is called a ________ study.
    Double blind study
  16. A study that begins with a group of participants already suffering from cardiovascular disease and then looks into past eating and exercise behaviors for ideas about what caused their disease is
  17. Assuring a possible research participant of confidentiality means
  18. In the United States most of the leading causes of premature death are due to
    Lifestyle choices
  19. The major cause of illness is
    Lifestyle choices (behavior)
  20. A pathogen is
    Microorganism capable of producing illness or disease
  21. Mary is overweight and has high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. Her parents are long-lived so she thinks she is not at risk for cardiovascular disease. Marian has no intention of changing her lifestyle. According to the transtheoretical model or stages of change theory,
    Marian is in the ________ stage of change.
  22. In the precaution adoption process model of health behavior, people are at risk of illness or injury, but think the risk factors do not apply to them personally. This attitude is called
    Optimistic bias
  23. In health psychology the word "interventions" is used to indicate
    an organized effort to help people change or modify their behavior
  24. The majority of premature deaths in the United States can be traced to
    Lifestyle choices (and biological)
  25. Encouraging women to do monthly breat self-exams or men to check on a monthly basis for masses or tumors in their testicles is an example of
    Secondary prevention
  26. When people stop a healthy behavior change and return to their former risky behavior is referred to as
  27. Scientific studies indicate that regular physical activity improves ______ health
    Biological (know alot of choices)

    • reduces risk of premature death,
    • lowers resting blood pressure,
    • improves insulin resistance and cholesterol ratios, reduces body fat,
    • and strengthens
    • bones
  28. The type of exercise that contributes most to cardio respiratory fitness is
    Exercise that gets your heart beat up and gets you breathing more rapidly for an extend period of time

    • Exercise

    • that gets your heart beat up and gets you breathing more rapidly for an extend
    • period of time
  29. Strength training enhances
    -Maintains physical strength so you can continue to do what you want to do in your life

    -Uses calories and stored fat and improves the appearance of your body

    -Improves posture and body stance (so people look younger, less fatigued, and more alert)
  30. Studies of the effects of exercise on depressed patients have generally found that exercise
    Aerobic exercise seems better than no treatment and the benefits are not significantly different from other interventions

    Relieves anxiety
  31. The most frequent reason given by people about why they do not exercise is
    lack of time
  32. The benefits of regular aerobic exercise include
    Relieve anxiety,
  33. The doctor told Maria she needed to reduce her weight. If she begins an aerobic exercise program, she will probably
    Feel better about herself, lose a little weight here and there and feel less anxiety
  34. A biopsychosocial analysis of unhealthy weight gain indicates that more people are obese than ever before in history and the major reason is
    poor eating habits?
  35. After several months of exercising on a regular basis people often find they
  36. The major cause of people giving up their exercise program is
    no quick results
  37. Find the true statement about strength training
    You don't have to have special equipment
  38. Some ways to avoid relapse in healthful eating practices is
    avoid it in the future or realizing what went wrong and how you can improve from it
  39. Based on class discussion, if a friend asks you how they can tell if they are losing “weight” or not, you might suggest they
    Ask someone who they have not seen in a while or see if their clothes feel looser
  40. Researches have suggested several reasons why obesity has increased in the United States over the past two decades, it is likely that people are
    Living sedentary lives, being lazy, have machines that do work for us
  41. From the viewpoint of this course the major reason for adults to change their behaviors related to nutrition, exercise, and weight control is to maintain or improve their
  42. When our behavior is permanently changed the stage is referred to as
  43. A function of protein is to promote growth and repair of the body. Sources of protein in the diet are
    • Animal protein
    • Fruits and nuts
  44. Most of our calories or energy should come from
    • Fats or lipids
    • **Proteins and carbohydrates
  45. Food like grains and vegetables containing fiber belongs to the class of nutrients known as
  46. Our eating patterns should represent a balance among the major nutrients. Dietary recommendations include percentages of daily caloric intake from
    • About 45-65% calories from carbohydrates
    • 20-35% of calories from fats
    • 10-35% of calories from protein

    Variety: eating foods that contain protein, carbohydrates, fats, fiber, vitamins, and minerals
  47. Probably the most important reason for obesity today in North America is
    lack of exercise and eating unhealthy such as fast food.

    In class: she said remember industrialized revolution and why athletes weigh more but aren’t obese
  48. An important aspect of behavior modification used to for weight control planning is
    • Desire for change,
    • Balanced diet with moderate calorie restricion,
    • Adequate exercise,
    • Cognitive behavior change strategies,
    • and Self acceptance
  49. Adequacy refers to taking in a sufficient number of calories to make it possible to
    Maintain health and carry on with normal activity
  50. High fad diets contribute to
    Obesity, CVD, cancer, diabetes