Biology and Behavior
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What are Neurons?
- Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information. They are the basic links that permit communication within the nervous system.
What are Dendrites?
A branch of the neurons. The parts of the neuron that are specialized to receive information.
What is an Axon?
- Long thin fiber that transmit signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Axons may be long and branch off to other cells to communicate.
What is a Soma?
Cell body that contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells
Name the 4 parts of the Neuron.
- 1) Soma
- 2) Dentrides
- 3) Axon
- 4) Terminal Button and Synapse
What is Action Potential?
A very brief shift in a neurons electrical charge that travels along an Axon.
What is the All or none Law?
Either the Neuron fires or it doesn’t. A half fire will never occur. Its action potentials are all the size each time.
What events lead up to the action potential?
- 1) Positively charged ions flow out of the neuron.
- 2) The cell membrane potential is negative.
- 3) Positively charged ions flow into the neuron
- 4)The cell membrane potential is postive
What is a synapse?
A junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another.
Which statement about the synapse is false?
- a. The synapse is the place where the dendrites of one neuron link up with the axon of another.
- b. One neuron can form synapses with many others.
- c. Synapses are filled with fluid
- d. Communication between neurons take place at the synapse.
What are neurotransmitters?
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another. They are fundamental to behavior. They play a key role in everything from muscle movements to moods and mental health.
What is acetylcholine?
The only transmitters throughout the nervous system between motor neurons and voluntary muscles. Every move that is made depends on ACH released to your muscle by motor neurons.
What is dopamine?
A Neurotransmitter that contributes to the control of voluntary movements.
What is serotonin?
Involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating, and aggression
What are norepinephrine?
Contributes to modulation of mood and arousal.
What are endorphins?
Plays a role in Pain relief and response to stress. This neurotransmitter also regulates eating behavior.
Which of the following statements about neurotransmitters is false?
- a. Neurotransmitters allow impulses to flow from one neuron to another.
- b. Neurotransmitters prevent impulses from flowing from one neuron to another.
- c. Neurotransmitters are stored in the cell bodies of neurons.
- d. Each neurotransmitter is associated with a unique receptor.
- e. Unused neurotransmitter are recycled by neurons and used again.
What Role does Endorphins play?
influences eating, alertness, wakefulness.
What role does acetylcholine play?
is involved in movement and memory.
What role does seotonin play?
What role does glutamate play?
is involved in attention and movement.
List the four processes that are regulated by the hypothalamus:
- A. Fighting
- B. Fleeing
- C. Feeding
- D. Mating
What is the Hypothalamus?
A structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs
The hypothalamus is located in the
a. forebrain b. hindbrain c. midbrain d. spinal cord
What is the Limbic System?
A loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deer subcortical area. Limbic meaning border.
What is the Hippocampus
Plays a role in memory processes. Responsible for the consolidation of memories for factual information.
What is the Amygdala
Plays a central role in learning of fear responses.
What are the functions of the Cerebrum
Responsible for sensing, thinking, learning, emotion, consciousness, and voluntary movement.
What is the Corpus Callosum:
The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
What are the Cerebral Hemispheres:
The right and left halves of the cerebrum
What is the Cerebral Cortex:
Convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum.
What happens in the cerebrum?
Label each of the following descriptions as (a) corpus callosum, (b) cerebral hemispheres, and (c) cerebral cortex.
convoluted covering of the cerebrum
membrane that connects the cerebral hemispheres
right and left halves of the cerebrum
- C convoluted covering of the cerebrum
- A membrane that connects the cerebral hemispheres
- B right and left halves of the cerebrum
What are the functions of the frontal lobes.
Judgment and Impulse Control
What are the functions of the Motor Cortex:
Basic voluntary muscle movement.
Which is the best description of the language abilities of a person who suffers damage to Broca's area?
a. They cannot understand spoken language.
b. They can only understand the speech of others who speak very slowly.
c. Their speech cannot be understood by others.
d. They must put forth a great deal of effort to speak.
- a. They cannot understand spoken language.
- b. They can only understand the speech of others who speak very slowly.
- c. Their speech cannot be understood by others.
- d. They must put forth a great deal of effort to speak.
What is plasticity?
The quality of being easily shaped or molded.
What is the relationship between age and plasticity?
It can vary by age while plasticity can last a lifetime.
The produce hormones that help the body cope with an emergency.
The is the body's "master gland" and produces hormones that contribute to growth.
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