PSY 336 Chapter 2

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ralejo
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235297
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PSY 336 Chapter 2
Updated:
2013-09-17 01:36:26
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Emotions Drumheller Evolution
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Evolution of Emotions
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  1. The idea that both the earth and living organisms change in some systematic way over times goes back at least as far as _____________________
    The idea that both the earth and living organisms change in some systematic way over times goes back at least as far as the early Greeks
  2. _____________________ believed that one species could be gradually transformed into another
    Erasmus Darwin believed that one species could be gradually transformed into another
  3. ______________ was the first to postulate a mechanism by with transformation took place
    Jean Lamark was the first to postulate a mechanism by with transformation took place
  4. Theory of Acquired Characteristics
    Adaptive abilities developed during an organism's lifetime are passed on to the organism's offspring
  5. Chracteristics of a species would change as the traits necessary for _________ changed, thus transmuting the species
    Chracteristics of a species would change as the traits necessary for survival changed, thus transmuting the species
  6. Darwin's Theory of Evolution
    • The reproductive capacity of all living organisms allows for many more offspring than can survive in a given environment (struggle for survival)
    • Among the offspring of any species, there are vast individual differences, some of which are more conducive to survival than others
    • This results in the survival of the fittest
  7. Natural Selection of _______________ characteristics from _____________
    Natural Selection of adaptive characteristics from individual differences
  8. Superabundance
    Animals and plants produce more offspring than necessary merely to reproduce themselves.
  9. Variation
    Each offspring is somewhat different than other, and differences are passed on heredity
  10. Natural Selection
    Characteristics that allow the individual to be adapted to the environment are selected for; disadvantageous characteristics are selected against
  11. Selection Pressures
    Features of the physical or social environment that determined how individuals need to evolve in order to survive and reproduce
  12. Intrasexual Competition
    Occurs within a sex for access to mates

    Males vs Males; Females vs Females
  13. Intersexual Competition
    Process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in the other sex
  14. Adaptation
    Genetically based traits that allow organisms to respond well to specific selection pressures, and to survive and reproduce
  15. Epiphenomenon
    • Traits that are thought to be byproducts of other adaptation; serve no apparent evolutionary function in-and-of themselves
    • A secondary phenomenon that results from and accompanies another
  16. Exaptation
    A process in which a structure or feature acquires a function that is different than the original function it was adapted or selected for
  17. Emotions have some basis in our _________
    • Emotions have some basis in our genes
    • Genes needed for us to experience emotions started out as random mutation long ago
  18. Emotions enable rapid ___________ to events in the environment
    • Emotions enable rapid orientation to events in the environment
    • Interrupt ongoing processes and direct attention to significant threats and opportunities
  19. How do you enable more adaptive responses to events in the environment?
    Coordinate the cardiovascular & respiratory systems, various muscle groups, and facial expressions
  20. Function of Fear
    Help to escape from predators
  21. Function of Anger
    Set of coordinated responses that help restore just relations with others
  22. Function of Embarrassment
    • Form of appeasement
    • Helps with social responses
    • Give in to keep peace
  23. Function of Compassion
    Enhances the welfare of vulnerable individuals  especially when they have been harmed
  24. Why do we experience our emotional states as powerful, and at times overwhelming
    Emotions are informative about specific social events or conditions that need to be acted upon
  25. How are emotions related to physiology?
    Emotions are states of readiness
  26. How are emotions related to communication?
    Emotional communication evokes complementary and reciprocal emotions in others that help individuals respond to significant social events
  27. Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness
    Description of the social and physical environment in which the human species evolved during the 6 million years since the human line branched off from the line that led to chimpanzees and bonobos
  28. Jane Goodall
    • Studied 160 chimpanzees in Gombe, Tanzania
    • Documented many kinds of emotions and the situations that prompted them
    • These expressions are bases for distinctive patterns of interaction
  29. Frans De Waal
    Primates reconcile following conflicts, share food, and come to the aid of other chimps in distress.
  30. Sexuality: Chimpanzees
    • Sexually promiscuous
    • Males aggressive for access to females
    • Mothers raise infants alone
  31. Sexuality: Bonobos
    • Less aggressive than chimps
    • Social lives revolve almost entirely around sex
    • Females copulate freely with many of the adult males in their immediate social group
    • Homosexual relations common
  32. Sexuality: Olive Baboons
    Although promiscuous, females form long-lasting friendships with 2 or 3 males - marked by emotions such as jealousy that seem similar to our own
  33. Homosapiens
    • Appeared ~ half a million years ago
    • Brains ~ 1,200-1,450 cc
  34. Homoerectus
    • Appeared ~ 1.9 million years ago
    • Brains ~ 1,000 cc
    • Males ~ 15% bigger than females
  35. Homohabilis
    • Appeared ~ 2.3 million years ago
    • Brains ~ 363=600 cc
    • Males ~ 50% bigger than females
  36. Infants had a long period of ______________ than those of apes, and required more care of parents → ___________________
    Infants had a long period of dependency than those of apes, and required more care of parents → division of labor  established
  37. A critically important evolutionary step was the emergence of _____________, which is unusual among our primate cousins
    A critically important evolutionary step was the emergence of monogamy, which is unusual among our primate cousins
  38. What is the central structure of human life and is human universal?
    Family
  39. What helps us form and maintain attachments that are critical to reproduction and the raising of offspring to the age of reproduction?
    Emotions
  40. Romantic Love
    Motivates long-term commitments to romantic partners
  41. Jealousy
    • Relates to mate protection
    • Triggered by cues that signal potential threats to the relationship
    • Motivates possessive and threat behaviors that discourage competition and prevent sexual opportunities for the mate
  42. Sadness
    Follows the loss of important bonds, and helps individuals establish new bonds
  43. Distress & Anxiety
    Separation from attachment figures
  44. Caregiving-related emotions
    Facilitate protective relations between parent and offspring
  45. Guilt
    Occurs following violations of reciprocity and is expressed in apologetic, remedial behavior that motivates cooperation and reestablishes reciprocity
  46. Anger
    Motivates the punishment of individuals to derogate others whose favorable status is unjustified, this preserving equal relations
  47. Embarrassment and Shame
    Appease dominant individuals and signal submissiveness
  48. Contempt
    Feelings of superiority and dominance vis-à-vis inferior others
  49. Awe
    Associated with the experience of being in the presence of an entity greater than the self and thereby endows higher status individuals with respect and authority
  50. Disgust
    Helps us choose a balanced and safe diet
  51. Enthusiasm & Interest
    Help us concentrate on tasks, pursue resources  and explore the environment
  52. Human neocortex implications
    • Highly social lives
    • Theory of Mind
    • Share intention

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