Bio 102 Test 1

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Bio 102 Test 1
2013-09-17 08:02:38
Biology MSU 102 Test Chapters

Biology Test 1
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  1. The third most abundant atom in our body
    • Carbon (in number)
    • H (in mass)
  2. building block (or monomer) of carbohydrate?
  3. Name 3 monosaccharides
    • glucose
    • fructose
    • deoxyribose
  4. NameĀ 4 polysaccharides
    • starch
    • glycogen
    • cellulose
    • chitin
  5. Most abundant carbohydrate in our nature?
  6. carb in potato?
  7. if the monomer is monosaccharide, the polymer is
  8. if the monomer is amino acid, the polymer is
  9. two functions of protein?
    chemical messengers, movement, healing
  10. How many amino acids?
  11. what polysaccharide is found in our liver, muscle and brain? (aka human starch)
  12. write three examples of secondary structure of proteins
    alpha helix, beta pleated sheet, random coil
  13. 3 major atoms that make up carbs?
    c h o
  14. 4 atoms that make up proteins?
    c h o n
  15. 4 types of lipid
    • triglyceride
    • monoglyceride
    • diglyceride
    • fatty acid
  16. monomer is fatty acid. polymer?
  17. lipid functions
    store energy, provide insulation
  18. DNA made up of what atoms?
    c h o n p
  19. building block of dna
    • sugar
    • phosphate group
    • nitrogen containing base
  20. energy stored in animal
  21. energy stored in plants
  22. structural sugar in roach shells
  23. source of insoluble fiber in the diet
  24. made of H O C
  25. contains genetic information
  26. reduces cholesterol found in fish fat
    Omega 3 fat
  27. increases cholesterol in body, found in cheese
    trans fat
  28. one type of protein
  29. golgi
    sorts and ships secretory proteins
  30. lysosome
    recycling center of cell. degrades worn out organelles
  31. nucleus
    the brain or command center of the cell
  32. vacuole
    stores water and nutrients in plant cells
  33. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • network of membranes that aid in processing proteins
    • studded with ribosomes
    • some protein production, protein folding, quality control and dispatch
  34. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    synthesize steroids. detox
  35. example of a single cell organism?
  36. 1nanometer equals
    1 times 10 to the negative 9
  37. 1 micrometer
    1 times ten to the negative 6
  38. millimeter
    1 x 10 to the negative three
  39. Nucleolus
    area within the nucleus that produces RNA
  40. Key differences between RER and SER?
    • SER - no ribosomes
    • RER - protein production, folding, dispatch
    • SER - production and metabolism of fats, steroid hormones, detox
  41. worn-out cells are destroyed where?
  42. mitochondria are essential why?
    they make atp from food
  43. three major types of cytoskeleton
    • microfilaments (actin - cell support, movement)
    • intermediate filaments (keratin - stabilize)
    • microtubules - largest
  44. relative thickness of cytoskeletons
    6 x 10-9, 6-7 microm, 12-15 microm
  45. organelle in plant cell responsible for photosynthesis?
  46. two most important products of photosynthesis
    oxygen and glucose
  47. plasmodemata
    cell to cell transport in plants
  48. gap junction
    • cell to cell transport (secret passages) in animal cells
    • also
  49. major functions of cell membrane
    • maintain constant environment
    • bouncer
  50. scientist who first performed research re solubility of oil in water
    ben franklin
  51. up to date model of biological membrane developed by singer and Nicolson?
    plasma membrane isn't still but somewhat flexible. it's flexible because lipid components. membranes contain a mosaic of proteins
  52. fluidity of membrane is because of
  53. structural features of phospholipid
    2 fatty acid chains plus a polar phosphate
  54. role of cholesterol in the cell membrane
    keeps small molecules from getting through, also maintain optimum fluidity
  55. role of proteins at biological membrane?
    • structure
    • also recognition, communication, transport
  56. integrated proteins
    bound to the hydrophobic interior
  57. peripheral proteins
    lie on either side of the membrane but are not bound to its hydrophobic interior
  58. semipermeability
    biological membranes are permeable to H2O and hydrophobic materials, however, some other molecules can not pass
  59. what molecules are moving down their concentration gradients through the membrane without using the protein channel?
    Gases - O2, CO2
  60. main differences between facilitate diffusion and active transport
    facilitated uses proteins to get through, active transport uses proteins and energy
  61. example of facilitate transport
    glucose, amino acids
  62. example of active transport
    sodium potassium pump
  63. 3 different endocytic pathways
    pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis
  64. what is exocytosis
    method of moving larger materials out of the cell through fusion of a transport vesicle with plasma membrane
  65. LDL molecule uptake is mediated by
    receptor mediated endocytosis
  66. pinocytosis
    • creation of transport vesicles, invaginated in plasma membrane
    • congregate in coated pit, pit deepens and pinches off into a vesicle
    • polio, flu get in this way
  67. phagocytosis
    • movement of materials into a cell by means of wrapping extensions of the plasma membrane around the materials and fusing extensions together
    • immune system cells
    • generate pseudopodium and push membrane towards the bacteria and makes vesicle
  68. receptor mediate endocytosis
    • similar to pino but utilize receptor molecules for cells
    • uptake cholesterol particles