Bio 102 Test 1
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Bio 102 Test 1
Biology MSU 102 Test Chapters
Biology Test 1
The third most abundant atom in our body
Carbon (in number)
H (in mass)
building block (or monomer) of carbohydrate?
Name 3 monosaccharides
Name 4 polysaccharides
Most abundant carbohydrate in our nature?
carb in potato?
if the monomer is monosaccharide, the polymer is
if the monomer is amino acid, the polymer is
two functions of protein?
chemical messengers, movement, healing
How many amino acids?
what polysaccharide is found in our liver, muscle and brain? (aka human starch)
write three examples of secondary structure of proteins
alpha helix, beta pleated sheet, random coil
3 major atoms that make up carbs?
c h o
4 atoms that make up proteins?
c h o n
4 types of lipid
monomer is fatty acid. polymer?
store energy, provide insulation
DNA made up of what atoms?
c h o n p
building block of dna
nitrogen containing base
energy stored in animal
energy stored in plants
structural sugar in roach shells
source of insoluble fiber in the diet
made of H O C
contains genetic information
reduces cholesterol found in fish fat
Omega 3 fat
increases cholesterol in body, found in cheese
one type of protein
sorts and ships secretory proteins
recycling center of cell. degrades worn out organelles
the brain or command center of the cell
stores water and nutrients in plant cells
rough endoplasmic reticulum
network of membranes that aid in processing proteins
studded with ribosomes
some protein production, protein folding, quality control and dispatch
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
synthesize steroids. detox
example of a single cell organism?
1 times 10 to the negative 9
1 times ten to the negative 6
1 x 10 to the negative three
area within the nucleus that produces RNA
Key differences between RER and SER?
SER - no ribosomes
RER - protein production, folding, dispatch
SER - production and metabolism of fats, steroid hormones, detox
worn-out cells are destroyed where?
mitochondria are essential why?
they make atp from food
three major types of cytoskeleton
microfilaments (actin - cell support, movement)
intermediate filaments (keratin - stabilize)
microtubules - largest
relative thickness of cytoskeletons
6 x 10-9, 6-7 microm, 12-15 microm
organelle in plant cell responsible for photosynthesis?
two most important products of photosynthesis
oxygen and glucose
cell to cell transport in plants
cell to cell transport (secret passages) in animal cells
major functions of cell membrane
maintain constant environment
scientist who first performed research re solubility of oil in water
up to date model of biological membrane developed by singer and Nicolson?
plasma membrane isn't still but somewhat flexible. it's flexible because lipid components. membranes contain a mosaic of proteins
fluidity of membrane is because of
structural features of phospholipid
2 fatty acid chains plus a polar phosphate
role of cholesterol in the cell membrane
keeps small molecules from getting through, also maintain optimum fluidity
role of proteins at biological membrane?
also recognition, communication, transport
bound to the hydrophobic interior
lie on either side of the membrane but are not bound to its hydrophobic interior
biological membranes are permeable to H2O and hydrophobic materials, however, some other molecules can not pass
what molecules are moving down their concentration gradients through the membrane without using the protein channel?
Gases - O2, CO2
main differences between facilitate diffusion and active transport
facilitated uses proteins to get through, active transport uses proteins and energy
example of facilitate transport
glucose, amino acids
example of active transport
sodium potassium pump
3 different endocytic pathways
pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis
what is exocytosis
method of moving larger materials out of the cell through fusion of a transport vesicle with plasma membrane
LDL molecule uptake is mediated by
receptor mediated endocytosis
creation of transport vesicles, invaginated in plasma membrane
congregate in coated pit, pit deepens and pinches off into a vesicle
polio, flu get in this way
movement of materials into a cell by means of wrapping extensions of the plasma membrane around the materials and fusing extensions together
immune system cells
generate pseudopodium and push membrane towards the bacteria and makes vesicle
receptor mediate endocytosis
similar to pino but utilize receptor molecules for cells
uptake cholesterol particles