250 orthopedic clients

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elevatedsound7
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235332
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250 orthopedic clients
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2013-09-29 13:16:49
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250 orthopedic clients
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250 orthopedic clients
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  1. what is a sprain
    stretch and or tear to the ligaments surrounding a joint
  2. S&S of sprain =
    • loss of function
    • pop or tearing sensation
    • discoloration
    • pain
    • rapid swelling
  3. strain =
    • excessive strething of a muscle or tendon
    • usually occur in the largeer muscle groups
  4. strains and sprains are graded by
    • mild
    • moderate
    • severe - torn ligament
  5. strain S&S
    • pain
    • limited motion
    • muscle spasms
    • swelling
  6. treatment for strains and sprains
    • RICE
    • rest - ICE - compression - elevation
  7. after how long should you administer mild heat to strains and sprains
    • after 48 hours post injury
    • X 15 - 30 minutes
  8. how do you prevent strains and sprains
    • warm up
    • stretching
  9. 5 - P's =
    • neurovascular assessment
    • Pain
    • Pulse
    • Pallor
    • Paresthesia
    • Paralysis
  10. parasthesia  =
    numbness, tingling, prickling, etc
  11. dislocation vs subluxation =
    • subluxation = partial or incomplete displacement or the joint
    • dislocation = complete separation of the joint surfaces
  12. S & S of dislocation and subluxation
    • deformity
    • pain
    • loss of function of joint
    • swelling of soft tissues
  13. dislocation is considered an orthopedic emergency why
    decreased blood flow to extremity
  14. treatment of dislocation =
    sling and ice to the site of injury
  15. reduction =
    moving a bone back in place
  16. major complications of dislocation and subluxations
    • fractures
    • avascular necrosis
    • neurovascular tissue damage
  17. avascular necrosis =
    death of bone tissue due to lack of blood flow
  18. intervertebral disc disease includes =
    • herniated intervertebral disk (slipped disc)
    • DDD = degenerative disk disease
  19. DDD =
    • degenerative disc disease
    • compressed discs in back
  20. clinical manifestations of DDD and herniated disc disease =
    • low back pain
    • sciatic nerve pain
    • reflexes may be decreased or absent
    • Cauda equina = bowel and bladder incontinence
  21. cauda equina =
    • emergency
    • pt has bowel and bladder incontinence with back injury
  22. straight leg raising test =
    • helps in diagnosis of disk disease
    • lay flat on back and raise legs up to 90 degree angle
  23. myelorgram =
    uses dye and xray or CT to visualize bone
  24. care for intervetbral disc disease =
    • restricted activity for several days
    • medication
    • local ice or heat
    • physical therapy
    • surgery
  25. types of spinal surgery
    • laminectomy
    • microdiskectomy
    • spinal fusion
  26. laminectomy =
    • cut off lamina
  27. microdiscectomy =
    removal or material from herniated disc
  28. most important thing to do in care for pt after spine surgery =
    maintain proper spinal alignment
  29. nursing management after spinal surgery =
    • maintain proper spine alignment
    • pain meds
    • observe for severe headache or colorless leakage on dressing
    • nuerovascular checks
    • assess bladder and bowel function
    • prevent constipation
  30. what does colorless drainage on dressing post-op spine surgery mean =
    • spinal fluid leakage
    • can test with glucose test strip = it is sugary
  31. which spinal surgery have the longest post-op course =
    • spinal fusion
    • brace is usually used
  32. education after spinal surgery =
    • avoidance of sitting or standing for long periods of time
    • restrict lifting
    • discourage bending , stooping, twisting
    • use of firm mattress or bed board
  33. fractures are described and classified according to
    • open or closed
    • complete or incomplete
    • direction of fracture line
    • displaced = unstable, nondisplaced = stable
  34. communication with external environment =
    open fracture
  35. complex or comminuted fracture =
    shattered bone into several pieces
  36. most common signs and symptoms of fractures
    • discoloration
    • pain/muscle spasms
    • edema
    • deformity
    • crepitus
    • guarding
  37. closed reduction vs closed reduction =
    • closed = external manipulation to realign bones
    • open = surgery to realign bones
  38. petaling a cast =
    folding the top of a cast over edges to protect pt skin
  39. signs of infection with a casted extremity =
    • fever
    • hot spot on cast
    • discoloration
    • increase in pain
    • swelling
    • burning/tingling
    • foul odor
  40. important things to educate pt in cast and fracture care =
    • don't get wet
    • don't remove padding
    • don't insert foreign objects
    • avoid covering cast
    • elevate extremity for first 24 hours
    • active range of motion above and below injury
    • teach S&S of infection
  41. most important to traction =
    • MAINTAIN TRACTION
    • eliminate any issues that could cause traction to be impeded
  42. skin traction =
    • attached to skin to immobilize body part and control muscle spasm continuously or intermittently over period of time
    • 5 lbs
  43. skeletal traction =
    • attached directly to pt's bone
    • for long term use
    • uses pins, screws, wires, or tongs
    • much high weight than skin traction
  44. care for pt in traction =
    • maintain traction
    • position
    • skin breakdown prevention
    • pin site care
    • promote exercise

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