World Geography Test #1

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audreykate12
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235338
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World Geography Test #1
Updated:
2013-09-18 23:39:26
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World Geography
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Study guide
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  1. 4 Types of map scale
    • 1. Representative Fraction
    • 2. Bar graph
    • 3. Narrative
    • 4. Ratio
  2. 4 Major greenhouse gases
    • 1. Carbon Dioxide
    • 2. Methane
    • 3. Ozone
    • 4. Water Vapor
  3. 4 Most densely settled areas of the earth
    • 1) South Asia
    • 2) East Asia
    • 3) Europe
    • 4) Eastern North America
  4. 8 Controls of climate
    • 1. latitude - high, middle, low
    • 2. altitude - lapse rate
    • 3. ocean currents
    • 4. prevailing winds
    • 5. land and water distribution
    • 6. semi permanent high/low pressure centers
    • 7. mountain barriers
    • 8. storms - low pressure centers (hurricanes and tornadoes)
  5. 5 Altitudinal zones of mountains in the tropics
    • (low to high)
    • Tierra Caliente
    • Tierra Templada
    • Tierra Fria
    • Tierra Helada
    • Tierra Navada
  6. 5 Causes of deserts
    • Cold ocean currents off the coast
    • Mountain barriers
    • Area far from the sea in the middle of a large land mass
    • Location around 30 degrees North and South Latitude or "horse latitude"
    • Winds blowing parallel to the coast
  7. 3 Sources of the earth's fresh water in their correct order of amount
    • Found in ice caps (2.05% of all water on earth)
    • Ground water (0.68%) --> Aquifers - porous rock layers (fossil water)
    • Rivers, Lakes, Creeks (0.02%)
  8. 4 physiographic reigions of Venezuela
  9. 3 Physiographic regions of Peru
  10. Carl O. Sauer
  11. Cartography
    The making of maps
  12. Oblate Spheroid
    The earth is "egg-shaped"  or wider around the middle than it is from the North to South poles
  13. Earth's rotation
    • 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds
    • 24 hour day
  14. Earth's revolution
    The earth's orbit around the sun is elliptical
  15. Mercator map
    • 1579
    • Distorts the earth
    • Created for the purpose of navigation
  16. Latitude / parallels
    • Run East and West around the globe and measure distance North and South
    • (horizontal lines)
    • Can be used to find absolute location
  17. Equator
    0 degrees latitude
  18. Arctic Circle
    66 1/2 N. Lat. = Arctic Circle
  19. Antarctic Circle
    66 1/2 S. Lat. = Antarctic Circle
  20. Tropic of Cancer
    23 1/2 N. Lat. = Tropic of Cancer
  21. Tropic of Capricorn
    23 1/2 S. Lat. = Tropic of Capricorn
  22. North Pole
    90 degrees North lat. is North Pole
  23. South Pole
    90 degrees South lat. is South Pole
  24. Summer Solstice
    When the tilt of the earth's axis is inclined as close as possible to the sun.  Also the longest day of the year or longest sunlight during the day.
  25. Winter solstice
    When the earth's tilt is inclined as far as possible from the sun.  Also the shortest day of the year or the shortest sunlight during the day.
  26. Autumnal equinox
    Occurring in September in the northern hemisphere, the earth's tilt is neither inclined towards or away from the sun.
  27. Vernal (Spring) equinox
    Occurring in March in the northern hemisphere, the earth's tilt is neither inclined towards or away from the sun.
  28. Tropics (Low latitudes)
    HOT (tropic / equatorial region)
  29. Middle Latitudes
    in between 23 1/2 and 66 1/2 on both north and south sides
  30. High Latitudes (polar areas)
    • COLD (arctic and antarctic region)
    • Lack of sun for period of sun
    • Receive oblique rays of the sun - no direct rays
  31. Longitude / Meridian
    • Angular distance (0d to 180d) east or west as measured from the PRIME MERIDIAN (0d) that passes through the Greenwich Observatory in suburban London, England.  For much of its length across the mid-Pacific Ocean, the 180th meridian functions as the international date line.
    • Not parallel!
  32. Inernational dateline
    An imaginary line through the Pacific Ocean roughly corresponding to 180° longitude, to the east of which, by international agreement, the calendar date is one day earlier than to the west.
  33. Troposphere
    • 5 miles - poles
    • 11 miles - equatormost of the oxygen molecules
    • 90% oxygen below 18<000 feet
    • 10,000 elevation/altitude
    • weather takes placewater / water vapor
    • Every 1000 foot rise in elevation there is a 3.3 degree drop
  34. Stratosphere
    • out to 50 miles
    • less oxygen
    • less water vapor
    • little friction (airplanes fly as close to here as possible)
  35. Doldrums
    A prevailing wind in equatorial area
  36. Trade winds
    PREVAILING WIND: Winds that blow steadily from east to west and toward the equator. The trade winds are caused by hot air rising at the equator, with cool air moving in to take its place from the north and from the south. The winds are deflected westward because of the Earth's west-to-east rotation.
  37. Horse latitudes
    Little wind flow so ships had to eat their horses on board.  Other ships would see horse carcasses floating around in the water
  38. Westerlies
    The Westerlies, anti-trades, or Prevailing Westerlies, are prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude, blowing from the high pressure area in the horse latitudes towards the poles.
  39. Hurricanes
    • can be up to 400 miles in diameter
    • eye = 5-30 miles in diameter
    • CAT. 1 = 74-95 mph
    • CAT. 5 > 155 mph
    • 3 problems
    • wind damagerains galore
    • can stop for up to a day at a time
    • move slowly until they hit land
    • Wave surge (aka tidal surge)
    • can strike other places than America
  40. Typhoons
    Name for hurricanes in western pacific
  41. Cyclones
    Name for hurricanes in Indian oceans
  42. Willy willies
    Name for hurricanes in Australia
  43. Gulf stream
    • West Wind Drift or North Atlantic
    • An Ocean current
  44. Coriolis force
    A prevailing wind that is in the Northern hemisphere - curves to the right (everything! airplanes, warheads, wind)
  45. Lapse rate
    • The rate of decrease of atmospheric temperature with increase in altitude.
    • 3.3 degrees for every 1000 feet
  46. Orographic rainfall
    • A barrier (EX: mountain range) blocks wind flow and prevents precipitation
    • windward side = raining side
    • leeward side = dry side - rain shadow
    • Warm air holds more moisture than cold air
    • Cold air holds less moisture
  47. Jet streams
    • 20,000-40,000 ft. altitude
    • 4 sets of jet streams
    • 2 in north
    • 2 in south
    • always west to east
    • up to 450 mph
    • summer - 50 mph
    • winter - 100 mph
    • up to 3000-7000 feet thick
    • up to 300 miles wide->allows hot air to flow north, cold air to flow south->low pressure centers ride the jets from west to east
    • low pressure centers cause rain and storms
    • high pressure centers bring clear skies and no rain
  48. Greenhouse effect
    Short wave radiation waves from sun get in and heats objects, objects radiate long wave radiation which cannot escape
  49. Ozone layer
    • 12-3 miles
    • blocks ultra violet rays from sun
    • Skin cancer
  50. Holocene epoch
  51. Interglaciation
    periods of retreat of ice
  52. Wladimir Koppen
  53. A - Humid Equatorial climate
    • Humid editorial (wet and hot)
    • 25% of land area of the earth
    • 28% of population
    • fastest growing population area in the world
  54. B - dry climate
    • 28% percent of land area
    • only 6% of world's population lives here
  55. C - Humid climate
    • middle latitude climates
    • you have a change of seasons
    • marine climates
    • more effected by the ocean and seas than the land
    • don't have extreme winters
    • 55% of population
  56. H - Highland climate
  57. Rainforest / Selvas
    • not a jungle
    • poor soil because of rain
  58. Savanna
    • grassland
    • rainfall 40-60 inches
    • 6 months or more of drought
    • W = winter dry season
    • grass is not nutritious
  59. Monsoon
  60. Desert (arid) climate
    • BWH - desert arid (hot)
    • Less than 10 inches of rainfall per year
  61. Steppe (semiarid) cliamte
    BS Grassland
  62. Humid subtropical climate
    • CFA (Georgia)
    • humid subtropical
    • wet climate
    • long hot summer
    • mild winter
  63. Mediterranean climate
    • CSA
    • Mediterranean climate
    • southern California
    • central Chile
  64. Humid continental climate
  65. Lithium - Bolivia
  66. Xerophytic plants
  67. Francisco Pizarro (1531-1533)
  68. Incas
  69. Amazon river basin
  70. Andes mountains
  71. Barrios
  72. Haciendas
  73. Peons
  74. Plural societies
  75. Mestizo
  76. Bogota
  77. Medellin
  78. Cartegena
  79. Magdalena river
  80. Cauca river
  81. Farclandia
  82. coca / cocaine
  83. ecumene
  84. Caracas
  85. Lake Maracaibo
  86. Llanos
  87. Orinoco river
  88. Ciudad Guayana
  89. 3 types of rainfall

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