An objective and ocular lens is used to compound magnification
Steps of a gram stain
Apply crystal violet dye to slide
Apply iodine to slide to make dye more stay-fast
Decolorize with alcohol to remove dye from gram negative bacteria
Apply safranin to slide
What color does Gram positive/negative bacteria stain?
Positive - Blue/purple
Negative - Red/pink
Steps to extract DNA:
Lyse cells to collect DNA
Separate DNA from protien and debris
Isolate concentrated DNA
What are histones, detergent and protinease K?
Histones - bundles that DNA are wrapped around inside the nucleus
Protinease K - element in lysis solution that unravels histones
Detergent - Breaks cell wall/membrane so DNA can be released
What does the salt do while isolating DNA?
Causes protien and other debris to clump together so DNA can be easily seen
Gram positive vs. Gram negative bacteria
Differences in cell walls:
Gram positive has 20% more PTG
6 common gram positive bacteria that infect humans:
Examples of Gram Negative bacteria:
Spirochetes - (spiral-shaped)
What is a mycoplasma?
A bacteria that has no cell wall.
Penicillins aren't effective
Bacteria change shape, or are "Pleomorphic"
Smallest bacteria capable of self-reproduction
How does transcription work?
A - U
T - A
C - G
G - C
What is a Type I Hypersenstitivity?
Antigen causes crosslinking of IgE antibodies bound to IgE receptors of mast cells.
What is a Type IV Hypersensitivity?
T-Cells release cytokines
TB - What kind of mask?
Meningitis - What kind of mask?
Flu - What kind of mask?
Chickenpox - What kind of mask?
What goes in a sharps box?
What goes in a trash can?
Gauze with DRY substances
What goes in a biohazard container?
Anything with WET fluids/substances on it.
Patient with Encephalitis - precautions:
Scabies - What kind of precautions?
Meningococcal Meningitis - What type of precautions?
SARS - What kind of precautions?
VRE - What kind of precautions?
Tuberulosis - What kind of precautions?
Anthrax - What kind of precautions?
Hep A, B, C - What type of precautions?
What types of precautions are needed for the following situations?
Managing trauma patient
Changing IV dressing
Cleaning Incontinent patinet
Taking blood pressure
Irrigating large open wound