Community Policing Ch 3
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How did U.S. citizens establish the "public peace"?
The U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights, as well as federal and state statutes and local ordinances collectively establish the "public peace" in the US
What is a Social Contract
The social contract provides that for everyone to receive justice, each person must relinquish some personal freedom
What is community defined?
Community refers to the specific geographic area served by a police department or law enforcement agency and the individuals, organizations, and agencies within that area
It also refers to a feeling of belonging- a sense of integration, a sense of shared values, and a sense of "we-ness"
How does the decline of bowling league relate to crime
The bowling alone phenomenon refers to a striking decline in social capital and civic engagement in the United states
What does the broken window pheonom refer to?
The broken windows phenomenon suggests that it appears "no one cares," disorder and crime will thrive.
What does demographics entail?
Demographics include a population's size, distribution, growth, density, employment rate ethnic makeup, and vital statistics such as average age, education, and income.
What role does organizations and institutions play within a community?
Organizations and institutions can play a key role in enhancing community safety and quality of life
What power structures exist within a community?
1)formal power structure - which includes divisions of society within wealth and political influence: federal, state, and local agencies and government, commissions, and regulatory agencies.
2)informal power structure - which includes religious groups, wealthy subgroups, ethnic groups, political groups, and public interest groups.
What issues within the criminal justice system affect police-community relation
Controversial issues in the criminal justice system that affect police-community partnerships include plea bargaining, diversion, sentencing, rehabilitation, community alternatives to prison, victims' rights, and capital punishment
What is restorative justice?
Advocates a balanced approach to sentencing that involves offenders, victims, local communities and government to alleviate crime and violence and maintain peaceful communities.
How have citizens and communities been involved in community policing?
Citizen involvement in the law enforcement community and in understanding policing has taken the form of civilian review boards, citizen patrols, citizen police academies, ride-alongs, and similar programs.
VOCAB: social contract
A legal theory that suggests that for everyone to receive justice, each person must relinquish some individual freedom
The specific geographic area served by a police department or law enforcement agency and for the individuals, originations, and agencies within that area
VOCAB: social capital
- Refers to the strength of a community's social fabric and includes the elements of trustworthiness and obligations. Two levels of social capital are local and public
- 1)local - the bond among family members and their immediate, informal groups.
- 2)public - refers to networks tying individuals to broader community institutions, such as schools and churches linking individuals to various levels of government - such as the police
Vocab: Bowling alone
A metaphor referring to a striking decline in social capital and civic engagement in the United states
Broken windows phenomenon
Suggests that if it appears no cares about the community, as indicated by broken windows not being repaired, then disorder and crime will thrive.
Occurs when social control mechanisms have eroded abd include unmowed lawns, piles of accumulated trash, graffiti, public drunkenness, fighting, prostitution, abandoned buildings, and broken Windows
The theory that suggests that successful implementation of a crime-reduction initiative doesn't really prevent crime; instead it just moves crime to another area
The characteristics of a human population or community
Involving things (including people) that are basically similar, alike; the opposite of heterogeneous
Involving things (like people) that are unlike, dissimilar, different; the opposite of homogeneous
An area of a city usually inhabited by individuals of the same race or ethnic background who live in povety and apparent social disorganization.
Vocab: Bifurcated society
The widening of the gap between those with wealth (the "haves") and those living in poverty (the "have-nots") with q shrinking middle class.
Using private security officers or agencies to provide services typically considered to be law enforcement functions
Vocab: formal power structure
formal power structure - includes divisions of society within wealth and political influence: federal, state, and local agencies and government, commissions, and regulatory agencies.
Vocab: informal power structure
informal power structure - Includes religious groups, wealthy subgroups, ethnic groups, political groups, and public interest groups.
Turning youths away from the criminal justice system, rerouting them to another agency or program
Vocab: Plea bargaining
A practice in which prosecutors charge a defendant with a less serious crime in exchange for a guilty plea, thus eliminating the time and expense of a trail.
Vocab: community justice
An ethic that transforms the aim of the justice system into enhancing community life or sustaining communities
Vocab: NIMBY synodrome
"Not In My Back Yard" ; the Idea that it is fine to have a halfway-house across town, not In my backyard.
Vocab: Syndrome of crime
A group of signs, causes, and symptoms that occur together to foster specific crimes.
Vocab: restorative justice
Advocates a balanced approach to sentencing that involves offenders, victims, local communities, and government to alleviate crime and violence obtain peaceful communities.
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