Common nematode infections of ruminants

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Common nematode infections of ruminants
2010-06-14 19:16:05

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  1. major threaths to ruminants
    • Gastrointestinal nematodes
    • Survive on heavily populated permanent pastures
    • Parasites have ability to “hibernate”
    • The worms infect the GI lining
    • Mature into egg-laying adults within 2-4 weeks!!!
  2. H = Haemonchus
    O = Ostertagis
    T = Trichostrongylus
    • = Haemonchus
    • = Ostertagis
    • = Trichostrongylus
  3. HOT complex
    • Progressive weight loss due to decreased absorptive capacity of GI tract
    • Anemia and weakness due to blood loss
    • Submandibular edema = “bottle jaw” due to loss of plasma proteins
    • Poor haircoat
    • Watery Diarrhea
  4. Brow stomach worm
    Ostertagia ostertagi
  5. brown stomach worms host
    Ruminants (cattle, goats, sheep)
  6. brown stomach worms habitat
    abdomasum-destroy lining = decreased absorption
  7. distribution of the brown stomach worm
    primarily in northern countries
  8. clinical signs of the brown stomach worm
    diarrhea, submaxillary edema, weight loss
  9. Barberpole worm
    Haemonchus contortus
  10. host and habitat of the barberpole worm
    • cattle, goats, sheep
    • larvae and adults feed on blood in the stomach
  11. barberpole worm distribution
  12. signs of barberpole worm
    anemia and bottle jaw
  13. Bankrupt worm
    Trichostrongylus spp
  14. host and habitat of bankrupt worm
    • cattle, goats, sheep
    • abomasum and occasionally small intestine
  15. distribution of bankrupt worm
  16. signs of bankrupt worm
    diarrhea, dehydration, emaciation
  17. Diagnosis of ruminant nematodes
    EPG = eggs per gram
  18. EPG
    quantitative test to determine the presence of the parasites, how many may be infecting the herd
  19. treatment and control of parasites
    rotate pastures, keep more susceptible, young animals on cleanest pastures, and do not overstock pastures, deworm intire herd at once
  20. kinds of dewormers
    pour-ons, paste, continuous feeding(pellets, liquids added to feed, water)
  21. some anthelminitics used to control HOT complex
    Ivermectin, Doramectin, Eprinomectrin, Fenbendazole, Albendazole, Levamisole, Morantel tartrate, Moxidectin
  22. Nodular worm
    Oesophagastomum spp
  23. host and habitat of nadular worm
    • cattle, goats, sheep, swine
    • larvae in nodules in stomach and small/large intestines. Adult worms in large intestines
  24. distribution and symptoms of nodular worms
    • worldwide in wet, temperate climates
    • anemia, profuse fowl smelling watery diarrhea, may be fatal
  25. Roundworm
    Toxocara vitulorum
  26. host and habitat of roundworm
    • serious parasites of young cattle, especially in warm areas
    • small intestines
  27. distribution and symptoms of roundworm
    • worldwide
    • coughing and diarrhea. weakness, wt. loss, pneumonia
  28. Whipworm
    Trichuris ovis
  29. habitat and distribution of whipworm
    • cecum and large intestines
    • widespread
  30. symptoms and treatment for whipworm
    • whipworms are widespread, but effects of infection have not been determined
    • Fenbendazole
  31. Lungworm
    Dictyocaulus spp.
  32. host and habitat of lungworm
    • cattle
    • airways, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
  33. signs of lungworm
    increased respiratory rate, coughing, anorexia
  34. swine roundworm
    Ascaris suum
  35. swine roundworm habitat and symptoms
    • small intestines, then penetrate the liver within 24 hours
    • damage to the liver, pneumonia, swine influenza
  36. threadworm
    Stongyloides sp.
  37. host and habitat of threadworm
    • swine-S. ransomi
    • cow-S. papillosus
    • small intestine
  38. distribution and symptoms of threadworm
    • worldwide, especially in warm humid areas
    • penetrate the host skin and migrate to the lungs where they damage tisue. Adults inhabit the intestine, causing severe inflammation and bloody diarrhea
  39. Swine lung worm
  40. habitat, distribution, andsymptoms of swine lung worm
    • bronchi and bronchioles
    • worldwide
    • unthrifty, stunted, spasmodic coughing, secondary bacterial infections
  41. Red stomach worm
    Hyostrongylus rubidus
  42. host and habitat of red stomach worm
    • swine
    • stomach
  43. distribution and symptoms of red stomach worm
    • worldwide
    • interfere with gastric function, resulting in diarrhea and dehydration, weakness, anemia
  44. Trichina worm
    Trichinella spiralis
  45. host and habitat of trichina worm
    • mainly swine
    • small intestine
  46. distribution and symptoms of trichina worm
    • worldwide, indigenous infection not present in Australia
    • while not particularly damaging to swine in most cases, infected carcasses may be condemned.
  47. transmission of trichina worm to humans
    eating undercooked or raw meat of pig or wild game (bears)
  48. keep pig from getting trichina worm
    don't feed pigs garabage, keep pigs away from rodents, raccoons, skunks, opossums, dead pigs, hygiene in swine
  49. Kidney worm
    Stephanurus dentatus
  50. host and habitat of kidney worm
    • swine
    • adult leave cyst in the kidney or nearby fat; larvae migrate through the liver
  51. distribuion and symptoms of kidney worm
    • primarily in warm regions
    • general signs include depressed growth rate, loss of appetite, and emaciation