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How many children does dyslexia impact?
1 in 5 children, about 10 million in USA
What did people originally think?
Early reports were referred to ophthalmologists as it was believed to be word blindness, related to vision.
Why is the congenital form more limited?
Why? Timing of disruption. Congenital it forms when neural systems are created, so glitch is first laid down and limited to specific system for reading. In acquired, the disruption can easily impact other areas.
Why does the continuum harm kids sometimes?
As there is continuum, we set arbitrary cutoffs to determine who is ‘dyslexic’ while those just in front of this may share many of the same traits as those diagnosed, and may also need help to succeed.
What is the defect precisely? 2 points
Does not represent an overall defect in language, but a localized weakness within the phonological module, a specific component of language system.
Phonological part deals with sounds put together to form words and where words are broken down into sounds
What are 4 parts of the language system?
- 1) discourse
- 2) semantics (vocabulary and word meaning)
- 3) syntax (grammatical structure)
- 4) phonology (most basic)
What is dyslexia impairing?
Dyslexia is an disability in retrieving phonemes, and as a consequence they have a hard time selecting the appropriate phoneme and often choose one that is similar. (e.g. lotion instead of ocean)
Describe the basic development of reading. 4 parts
First a child is aware that the words heard are not just whole sounds
Child then becomes aware of the sounds within the whole words, and distinguishes the separate phonemes within a word
Then the child links letters on paper to what he hears
Finally, understands that the printed word and spoken word are related
What is it called when they've reached the final stage?
Once he’s reached the final stage, he has achieved the alphabetic principle, and can read.
Who were the two men who initially proposed the left hemisphere as responsible for language?
Describe Broca's area
- 1) in frontal lobe on left
- 2) language production
Describe Wernicke's area
- 1) Temporal lobe
- 2) comprehension of speech