pair of lenses used to view a object through a microscope, 10x
sample side (of the turret) lenses that magnify by 4x, 10x, 40x, or 100x
Low power objective(s)
High & dry objective
40x (but also technically 4x, 10x)
Oil Immersion Objective
the calibration of objectives so that when changing from one objective to another, the focus will not change by much and will only need fine adjustments to maintain focus
Coarse & Fine Adjustment
larger knob used for the initial, ‘rough’ focusing; the small knob used for fine sharp
the condenser distributes the light source light to create even illumination; the condenser may also be adjusted to increase or decrease side scatter to sharpen focused images
a camera-like diaphragm that can be used to adjust the amount of light that illuminates a sample
holds samples steady and flat, and allows for fine movement of the slides in two dimensions
Compound Light Microscope
microscope that uses two or more lenses and visible light to magnify objects
microscopy where the field is bright and the object(s) being observed are dark or opaque
microscopy where the field is dark and the object that is being observed is light or clear. DFM is often used to enhance internal details.
Phase Contrast Microscope
bright field microscopy where the optical system provides extra scattered light to unstained objects, enhancing dimensionality and edges. One type is DIC.
uses very bright light that is passed through high-pass or narrow-bandwidth excitation filters before illuminating the sample. The emission light is also filtered (usually high-pass) to eliminate the excitation range, allowing the viewer (or camera) to see only the locations were dye is present.
green liquid disinfectant; can use to cover surfaces involving live organisms and disinfect lab surfaces
Wet mount slide
microscope slide of liquid specimen covered with cover glass
unicellular fungi with little or no mycelium that reproduces asexually, mainly by budding; involved in alcoholic fermentation and used to make alcoholic beverages (like beer and wine) and leavened bread
characteristic method of asexual reproduction among yeasts
multicellular masses of filamentous fungal growth
individual filaments, generally comprised of more than one cell
the entire mass of intermeshed hyphae
sometimes circular body of fungal growth visible to the unaided eye
the asexual reproductive body of a fungus
hyphal cross walls that divide filaments into separate cells
Petri plate (dish)
special covered dish used to culture cells
liquid nutrient designed to support the growth of microorganisms, such as nutrient broths or agar plates (when thickened with agar agar)
a gelatinous material derived from algae specifically used to culture bacterial and other cells
film of microbial cells on a microscope slide
air or heat dried smear; used to affix smear and slide can be viewed without cover glass
staining cells with a single dye
an extremely heat- and chemical-resistant, dormant, thick-walled spore that develops within bacteria; survival forms for the cells
Name the medium upon which the mold was cultured
Name the stain routinely employed on fungal specimens
Lactophenol cotton blue
State the scientific name of the yeast studied in the laboratory
Name the bacterium employed in the smear and simple staining exercises
a stain that allows us to distinguish between different types of cells by way of differential chromophore binding.
the best or brightest of two or more stains in a differential staining procedure (crystal violet in Gram staining).
the secondary stain (safranin in Gram staining),often differential or used to highlight additional features of the cells being examined
a chemical treatment that intensifies the bond between a dye and the cell.
a chemical treatment that removes unbound stain from cells
the study of shapes; in this case, the consistent details of the shape and clustering of bacteria.
bacterial cells that retain the stain carbofuchsin even after decolorization with acid-alcohol.
variation in size and shape in a population of a single organism
a nonliving mucilaginous sheath found external to the cell wall of some, but not all, bacteria.
Name the critical step in the Gram staining procedure
Decolorizing with acetone alcohol
a method of darkening the background around the cells with dye in order to better observe their structure; not true staining; cells appear as bright spots in a darkened field of view, similar to the appearance of dark field microscopy.
moving or having the power to move spontaneously; utilizes energy.
movement as a result of molecules colliding with the cells; this is simple vibration, not motility.