ENVH CH 4

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cowzrule318
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235393
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ENVH CH 4
Updated:
2013-09-17 15:23:00
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  1. What event in 1978 was (one of) the first that raised public consciousness focusing attention on the hazards to the environmentay=t and human health of improperly disposed chemicals?
    Love canal
  2. _________ is the leading factor among those listed below, associated with cancer risk.
    Poor diet
  3. Which of the following diseases is an acute disease?
    -AIDs, emphysema, cancer, flu, heart disease
    Flu
  4. The leading cause of injury-related death in the United States is _________.
    motor vehicles
  5. What is the major mechanism for chemical injury caused by allergens:
    producing a secondary action in which a chemical causes the release or formation of a more harmful substance
  6. Which of the following chemicals is most associated with systemic disease involving the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal system and the blood forming tissures?
    lead
  7. Which of the following is not an exogenous factor of malignant tumors?
    Gender
  8. Which of the following is not an endogenous factor of malignant tumors?
    oncogenic viruses
  9. How many homologous pairs of chromosomes are there in human nucleus?
    23
  10. Which of the following diseases is due to the point mutation on the co-dominant genes resulting in abnormal hemoglobin?
    sickle cell disease
  11. T/F: Carcinogens refers to chemicals which primarily cause reproductive disorders.
    False
  12. T/F: Most cancer risks are modifiable through changes in human behavior.
    True
  13. T/F: The best estimate for the contribution of pollution to cancer risk is around two percent of the total risk.
    True
  14. T/F: Chemical pollutants contribute substantially to cancer risk.
    False
  15. T/F: Reservoirs are those living organisms or inaminate objects that provide the conditions where the organisms may survive, multiply, and also provide the conditions necessary for transmission.
    True
  16. T/F: The leading cause of injury-related death in the United States involve motor vehicles accounting for nearly 4,000 deaths per year with more than 40 percent of those deaths n the 16-19 year age group.
    False
  17. T/F: Falls are the leading causes of accidental deaths in the home.
    True
  18. T/F: Teratologic defects usually arise during embryonic period of development and the causative factors are usually not genetic but from exposure to chemicals or radiation
    True
  19. T/F: Kwashiorkor develops from a lack of vitamin C.
    False
  20. T/F: Environmental disease refers to any pathologic process having a characteristic set of signs and symptoms which are detrimental to the well-being of the individual and are the consequence of many factors, including exposure to physical or chemical agents, poor nutrition and social or cultural behaviors.
    True
  21. T/F: Protein is the basic informational macromolecule that is the basis of heredity whose chemical structure has been known for more than 45 years.
    False
  22. T/F: Since every individual within each species is very much a representation of the information contained in the genome together with the expression of those genes in the development of that individual, all the genotypic changes are harmful or damaging.
    False
  23. T/F: One of the most well-known cytogenetic defects is trisomy 21 or Down's disease which is characterized by the addition of an extra chromosome to chromosome number 21.
    True
  24. T/F: Most teratogens exert their effect during certain critical time windows in the late stages of tissue and organ formation known as organogenesis.
    False
  25. What are the messages given through the public media about toxic chemicals?
      • exposure to toxic chemicals have dramatically increased the risk of cancer;
      • common household and agricultural chemicals are causing many human diseases and death;
      • polluted air and water are major sources of disease risk;
      • environmental chemicals are interfering with the reproductive process in humans and producing harmful effects in the fetus and young children.
  26. What are the major mechanisms for chemical injury?
      • interference with enzyme activity;
      • directly combining with some cell component other than enzymes;
      • producing a secondary action in which a chemical causes the release or formation of a more harmful substance.
  27. What is environmental disease and its external causal factors?
    Environmental disease refers to any pathologic process having a characteristic set of signs and symptoms which are detrimental to the well-being of the individual and are the consequence of external factors, including exposure to physical or chemical agents, poor nutrition and social or cultural behaviors.
  28. What are the differences between DNA and mRNA?
    Messenger RNA is quite similar to its DNA counterpart except it is single stranded, contains the nucleotide base uracil instead of thymine, and the sugar D-ribose instead of 2-deoxyribose in the four mononucleotides.

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