ENVH CH 5

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cowzrule318
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235395
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ENVH CH 5
Updated:
2013-09-17 15:37:45
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  1. How many synthetic chemicals are currently in commercial use in the United States, and whose toxicity is not widely known or understood?
    70,000
  2. __________is the most likely process of absorption for amino acids.
    facilitated diffusion
  3. Which of the following sites in the respiratory system is the most likely place for the carbon dioxide and ozygen to exhange in the blood?
    alveoli
  4. Which of the following processes, when prolonged and severe, can be life threatening such as in asthmatic attacks?
    bronchoconstriction
  5. What is the best estimate for the area of skin coverage in the average adult?
    3,000 in2
  6. By what absorptive process does hexane pass through the skin?
    passive diffusion
  7. How long is the average adult human gastrointestinal tract?
    30 feet
  8. Where is the most likely site for the absorption of toxic agents in the gastrointestinal tract?
    between the stomach and the upper portion of the intestine
  9. What is the mechanism for the harmful effects of CO (carbon monoxide)?
    Direct chemical combination with a cell constituent
  10. What is the major organ responsible for detoxification in the body?
    liver
  11. What is the major toxic mechanism for hydrogen cyanide?
    inactivate or remove the co-factor
  12. What is the major mechanism for toxicity of dithiocarbamate during alcohol consumption?
    inactivate or remove the co-factor
  13. Which of the following substances can cause a syndrome in infants referred to as "blue baby"?
    nitrogen compounds
  14. Which of the following refers to a substance that is attached to an antigen and promotes an antigenic response.
    hapten
  15. Which kind of cells are the primary targets of the AIDS virus?
    helper T-cells
  16. The largest percent of antibodies belong to the _________ class.
    IgG
  17. Which of the following hypersensitivity reactions is most often seen in transfusion reactions?
    cytotoxic
  18. What kind of hypersensitivity is associated with asthma?
    anaphylactic
  19. What kind of the following interactions is characterisitc of that for caffeine and sleeping pills?
    antagonistic
  20. Yu-cheng Disease in Taiwan is due to the toxic effect of _________ .
    PCBs
  21. When were both federal regulatory and legislative efforts begun to reduce lead hazards, including the limitation of lead in paint and gasoline?
    1970's
  22. T/F: Lead has been recognized as a hazard since early civilization when it was used to store wine, to pipe water, and even as vessels in which to cook food.
    True
  23. T/F: Once a potential toxic substance goes into our society, it automatically produces an adverse effect.
    False
  24. T/F: External respiration refers to the exchange of gases between blood and individual cells.
    False
  25. T/F: Sulfur oxides tend to reach deep into lung tissue while nitrogen dioxides tend to act in the upper moist airways of the respiratory tree.
    False
  26. T/F: The skin is the body's largest organ and consistis of many interconnected tissues.
    True
  27. T/F: Epidermis is the outer, thinner layer of the skin and dermis is the inner and much thicker layer of the skin.
    True
  28. T/F: The gastrointestinal tract is a major route of absorption for many toxic agents including mercury, lead, and cadmium
    True
  29. T/F: A toxin can produce a harmful effect upon an organ only by stimulating the normal metabolic actions of that particular organ.
    False
  30. T/F: Many enzymes require a nonprotein component called apoenzyme and a protein component called cofactor to become active.
    False
  31. T/F: Cadmium and beryllium are believed to inactivate enzymes by blocking the sites on the enzyme where such co-factors as iron normally attach.
    False
  32. T/F: When lead covalently bonds to an enzyme, its inhibition of enzymes is considered to be irreversible.
    True
  33. T/F: The exposure of allergens can trigger a diminished immune response in some people.
    False
  34. T/F: Chemical pollutants such as ozone can depress the immune response by inactivating alveolar macrophages.
    True
  35. T/F: B cells are the principle agents in cell-mediated immunity.
    False
  36. T/F: Humoral immune responses are characterized by subcutaneous bleeding.
    True
  37. T/F: The environmental pollutants such as ozone and fine particulates contribute to the significant rise in the numbers and severity of asthma cases.
    True
  38. T/F: If absorbed, lead tends to be stored mostly in fatty tissue.
    False
  39. T/F: Dioxin is considered to be one of the most toxic natural chemicals.
    False
  40. T/F: The EPA has listed 20ug/dl as the maximum acceptable blood lead level for fetuses and young children.
    False
  41. T/F: Lead may impair fertility in both men and women when blood lead levels approach 50 ug/dl.
    True

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