Many __ are of biological interest.
- __ is an antifungal agent found naturally.
- benzene is the __.
-- The __ is a six-membered ring with alternating double and single bonds
a representative hydrocarbon
prototypical aromatic compound
Benzene does not actually have __.
- All carbon carbon bonds are __.
- This is between the length of a __.
__ explains this by suggesting there are __ that contribute equally to the real structure.
- The real structure is oten depicted as __
discrete single and double carbon carbon bonds
exactly equal in length
carbon-carbon single bond and a carbon-carbon double bond
two resonance hybrids
a hexagon with a circle in the middle
in alkyl halides, a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) replaces the hydrogen of an alkane
in alcohols, the hydrogen of the alkane is replaced by the hydroxyl (--OH) group
An alcohol can be viewed as either a __ or an __.
hydroxyl derivative of an alkane
alkyl derivative of water
Alcohols are also classified according to __.
the carbon the hydroxyl is directly attached to
ethers have the general formula ROR or ROR', where R' is different from R
Ethers can be considered __ in which __.
The bond angle at oxygen is close to __.
organic derivatives of water
both hydrogens are replaced by organic groups
the tetrahedral angle
organic derivatives of ammonia
Amines are classified according to __. Explain.
This is a different classification scheme than that used in alcohols.
how many alkyl groups replace the hydrogens of ammonia
R-N-H2 = primary amine
R-R'-N-H= secondary amine
R'' = tertiary amine
Aldehydes and Ketones
- both have __.
- aldehydes have __.
- ketones have __.
The carbonyl carbon is __ hybridized.
It is __ and has a bond angle of about __.
one carbon attached to the carbonyl group
two organic groups attached to the carbonyl group
Carboxylic acids, esters, and amindes
- all contain __
a carbonyl group bonded to an oxygen or nitrogen
contain the carboxyl (carbonyl and hydroxyl) group
a carbonyl group is bonded to an alkoxyl (OR') group
a carbonyl group is bonded to a nitrogen derived from ammonia or an amine
an alkyl group is attached to a carbon triply bonded to a nitrogen
(This functional group is called a cyano group)
also called structural isomers differ in their bonding sequence
differ only in the arrangement of the atoms in space
What holds constitutional isomers together?
London dispersion forces
Orthogonal is what?
Constitutional isomers have __, but __.
the same chemical formula
the atoms are connected in a different order
Constitutional isomers have __.
compounds with the atoms bonded in the same order, but their atoms have different orientations in space
Cis and trans are examples of __. They occur when __.
there is a double bond in the compound
Since there is no free rotation along the C=C double bond, the groups on these carbons can __
point to different places in space
Hybridized orbitals are __ because __.
lower in energy
electron pairs are farther apart
The molecular dipole moment is the __ of the bond dipole moments.
Depends on __ and __.
__ contribute significantly to the dipole moment.
lone pairs of electrons
Strength of attractions between molecules influences the __, __, and __.
Classification of attractive forces:
London dispersions forces
Hydrogen bonding in molecules with OH or NH
The long chain isomer has the __.
greatest surface area and therefore the highest BP
As the amount of chain branching increasess, what?
the molecule becomes more spherical and its surface area decreases
the most highly branched isomer (neopentane) has the __ and __.
smallest surface area and lowest BP
To predict relative boiling points, we should look for differences in __(3)__.