Functional Group and Extras

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  1. alkenes
  2. What are examples of an alkene?
    • ethene, a major industrial feedstock
    • propene
  3. Alkynes
    • C triple bond O
    • ethyne
  4. Many __ are of biological interest. 
    - __ is an antifungal agent found naturally.
    • alkynes
    • capillin
  5. Benzene: __
    - benzene is the __. 
    -- The __ is a six-membered ring with alternating double and single bonds
    • a representative hydrocarbon
    • prototypical aromatic compound
    • Kekule structure
  6. Benzene does not actually have __. 
    - All carbon carbon bonds are __.
    - This is between the length of a __.
    __ explains this by suggesting there are __ that contribute equally to the real structure. 
    - The real structure is oten depicted as __
    • discrete single and double carbon carbon bonds
    • exactly equal in length
    • carbon-carbon single bond and a carbon-carbon double bond
    • two resonance hybrids
    • a hexagon with a circle in the middle
  7. Alkyl halides
    in alkyl halides, a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) replaces the hydrogen of an alkane
  8. Alcohols
    in alcohols, the hydrogen of the alkane is replaced by the hydroxyl (--OH) group
  9. An alcohol can be viewed as either a __ or an __.
    • hydroxyl derivative of an alkane
    • alkyl derivative of water
  10. Alcohols are also classified according to __.
    the carbon the hydroxyl is directly attached to
  11. Ethers
    ethers have the general formula ROR or ROR', where R' is different from R
  12. Ethers can be considered __ in which __.
    The bond angle at oxygen is close to __.
    • organic derivatives of water 
    • both hydrogens are replaced by organic groups
    • the tetrahedral angle
  13. Amines
    organic derivatives of ammonia
  14. Amines are classified according to __. Explain.
    This is a different classification scheme than that used in alcohols.
    • how many alkyl groups replace the hydrogens of ammonia
    • R-N-H2 = primary amine
    • R-R'-N-H= secondary amine
    • R-N-R'
    •     |
    •    R''       = tertiary amine
  15. Aldehydes and Ketones
    - both have __. 
    - aldehydes have __.
    - ketones have __. 

    The carbonyl carbon is __ hybridized. 
    It is __ and has a bond angle of about __.
    • carbonyl group
    • one carbon attached to the carbonyl group
    • two organic groups attached to the carbonyl group
    • sp2
    • trigonal planar
    • 120 degrees
  16. Carboxylic acids, esters, and amindes
    - all contain __
    a carbonyl group bonded to an oxygen or nitrogen
  17. Carboxylic acids
    contain the carboxyl (carbonyl and hydroxyl) group
  18. Esters
    a carbonyl group is bonded to an alkoxyl (OR') group
  19. Amide
    a carbonyl group is bonded to a nitrogen derived from ammonia or an amine
  20. Nitriles
    • an alkyl group is attached to a carbon triply bonded to a nitrogen 
    • (This functional group is called a cyano group)
  21. Constitutional isomers
    also called structural isomers differ in their bonding sequence
  22. Stereoisomers
    differ only in the arrangement of the atoms in space
  23. What holds constitutional isomers together?
    London dispersion forces
  24. Orthogonal is what?
    ninety degrees
  25. Constitutional isomers have __, but __.
    • the same chemical formula
    • the atoms are connected in a different order
  26. Constitutional isomers have __.
    different properties
  27. Stereoisomers
    compounds with the atoms bonded in the same order, but their atoms have different orientations in space
  28. Cis and trans are examples of __. They occur when __.
    • geometric stereoisomers
    • there is a double bond in the compound
  29. Since there is no free rotation along the C=C double bond, the groups on these carbons can __
    point to different places in space
  30. Hybridized orbitals are __ because __.
    • lower in energy
    • electron pairs are farther apart
  31. The molecular dipole moment is the __ of the bond dipole moments. 
    Depends on __ and __.
    __ contribute significantly to the dipole moment.
    • vector sum
    • bond polarity
    • bond angles
    • lone pairs of electrons
  32. Strength of attractions between molecules influences the __, __, and __.
    • MP
    • BP
    • solubility
  33. Classification of attractive forces:
    • dipole-dipole forces
    • London dispersions forces
    • Hydrogen bonding in molecules with OH or NH
  34. The long chain isomer has the __.
    greatest surface area and therefore the highest BP
  35. As the amount of chain branching increasess, what?
    the molecule becomes more spherical and its surface area decreases
  36. the most highly branched isomer (neopentane) has the __ and __.
    smallest surface area and lowest BP
  37. To predict relative boiling points, we should look for differences in __(3)__.
    • hydrogen bonding
    • MW and SA
    • dipole moments
Card Set:
Functional Group and Extras
2013-09-17 21:56:27
CHM 201

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